Volume 8, Issue 5 (2017)                   IQBQ 2017, 8(5): 53-78 | Back to browse issues page

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zolfagari H. Linguistic stereotypes in classic texts of Persian folk literature. IQBQ. 2017; 8 (5) :53-78
URL: http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-14-5800-en.html
Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1072 Views)
The language of tales includes a set of stereotypes including curses, tricks, courtesies, orisons, oaths, threats, comets etc.that have the cultural infrastructure and are very popular in the classic and folk literature making them marked. This foregrounding is an anthropological advantage that reflects the language, culture and lifestyle of people. The study of these materials as well as their syntax shows the difference in popular prose with popular texts, to say the prose of the popular texts is not exactly the same spoken language but a standard variant similar to the spoken and popular language. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the use of linguistic stereotypes and their role in accepting these tales among people. Another advantage of this study is to investigate the continuous use of these stereotypes in the public's current language. The interpretations and terminology used in this work illustrate the adjacency of the present spoken Persian to the language of the past. This subject is so important in sociolinguistics.
Thus the main question of this study is: to what extent in classic popular texts these stereotypes such as curses, tricks, courtesies, orisons, oaths, threats, comets, idioms and axioms contribute to the writing on popular literature. Our hypothesis is that one of the aesthetic aspects and the effect of these texts and their popularity among the people is the same as the use of linguistic stereotypes. To arrive at the answer, among the stereotypes and linguistic materials, 46 texts of classical popular literature were selected and all the material was extracted, categorized and analyzed. The novelty of the article is to analyze and extract hundreds of stereotypes of texts and reflect their diversity in a meticulous way, as well as linguistic and literary analysis and sociology of these rich materials in language.
Our research showed that the curse in these texts fully reflects the ideology and religious beliefs of the speaker. Cursing, deceiving or swearing in the popular stories of the Safavid and Qajar dynasties indicated the fragility of the moral foundations and sometimes indicate cultural and social problems. The insults were the following: those signifying the madness and stupidity, debauchery, fanaticism, sexual-oriented assimilations, addressing the public with animals, religious, relating to fortune, the relationship of bad manners, obscenity, and ignorance and finally those referring to the ethnic and national insults. By looking at the insults, which are often based on the type and severity of people, as the bastard has the highest frequency, because it is very important in people’s religion and customs. The dog is impure in Islamic law and is used in abusive manner, but this is not the case in other cultures. False narratives are directly related to the luck and fortune of people’s deep thoughts and beliefs.
It is possible to pursue the traces of the curses in people’s lifestyle. For instance, to wash the dead, it was putting it on the bed. Atash be gur gereftan refers to the history of parents disinheriting his/her child and the tomb of a young catching fire in the era of the Prophet considered as a curse. As well as a religious discussion, this question has a social aspect. On the other hand, orisons often stem from the religious beliefs of the people. Some of these orisons and admirations are also used nowadays including “Khane –at abad” and some others are already outdated like? In Mozde Kafshe Shoma. One must keep in mind that illness and death have been prevalent in the past and that these orisons are often a kind of wish for the health of the audience. Orisons like Bala gardanat shavam comes from the common beliefs of the people and is often a means or an orison that causes someone to avoid evil.
Oaths are in the name of God, prophets, religions, celestial books, religious figures or beautiful manifestations of nature to the dignity and power of kings and elders of national mythology which are sometimes humoristic. There are many threats and rodomontade in the legendary battle scenes.
One of the linguistic and structural elements of Áyyār stories is their iterative and templatic propositions which give a certain meaning and are often a structural tool for temporal and spatial differentiation. Templatic propositions are initial, middle and final. Initial propositions are devoted to the opening of a story where the narrator’s name is inserted, or a narrator is described with features such as the scholar,  competent, philosopher,  Mobed, engineer and the peasant, with beautiful poetic phrases and figures of imagery, in particular Saj ‘. Sometimes the story begins with the Sâki-nâme. In these propositions, they are invited to hear or read a story, while those in the middle divide narrative plans and final proposals making a happy wish for the listener and the reader.
The allusions of folk myths can be divided into two categories known as familiar and complex: Familiar and complex ones and those which are rarely used today. The treasure of these myths is one of the main sources of study making us familiar with the spirit, language and thoughts of our ancestors. The application of these proverbs will make the space of history delicate and bring it closer to everyday conversations. Existing examples can be categorized into four general categories in a thematic context:
-            A) The world and the fortune: The world is full of joy and sorrow, bitter and sweet, never faithful to anyone, it must spend our time in joy, we must not disobey the world.
-            B) Social issues: The wealth solves most problems. Dervish is always facing diverse calamities. The characters such as acceleration, ignorance, lying, frivolity, and irreverence, desire for shamelessness, tragedy, laziness, boredom, greed and selfishness are seen as disrespectful and humiliating behavior. Unlike some ancient prose texts, unfortunately, in these proverbs there are also the series of patriarchal and anti-feminist ideas, and women are associated with disapproved and of course disoriented features like: The evil, discloser, unfruitful, idiot, housebound, techy, credulous, malicious, tricky, coward and ignorant.
-            C) Politics and government: Government is a blessing and a pleasant opportunity, and even if it is short-lived, it is sweet and desirable. In some respects, one can see the emphasis on adherence to principles and meritocracy.
-            D) Ethical advice: some of the axioms invite to caution and conservatism. To be moderate in all affairs is the condition of the reason, and people have been discouraged from extremism. Some others encourage the people to avoid laziness and total obedience and to be graceful of everyday life unique opportunities. Rhetoric has the attributes such as: bold, soft, warm, gentle, thoughtful and polite, perfect, immanent and relevant to public knowledge and understanding. With such a statement, one can benefit from the penetrating speech.

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Article Type: Research Paper | Subject: Sociology of Language
Received: 2016/11/21 | Accepted: 2017/01/24 | Published: 2017/11/22

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