Volume 11, Issue 3 (2020)                   LRR 2020, 11(3): 121-148 | Back to browse issues page

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abbasi S, Najafi Asadollahi S, hajikhani A, Roohi Barandagh K. Analyzing the Theories on the Nature, and Function of Jarr in the Holy Qur'an. LRR. 2020; 11 (3) :121-148
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-39774-en.html
1- Ph.D. Candidate in Quranic Science and Hadith, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2- Professor, Department of Arabic Litreacher and language of Allame Tabatabaee Univesity
3- Associate Professor of Quranic Science and Hadith, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran , ali.hajikhani@modares.ac.ir
4- Associate Professor of Quranic Science and Hadith, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1673 Views)
Jarr, as a preposition, is significant among the other particles since it functions as a connector between the verb and noun in a given sentence; thus, the mere connection between the verb and the noun as well as its type depend on the precise definition of Jarr. Early grammarians took Jarr as a connector between the verb and the noun, but the recent ones, routinely, define it as words that modify the noun following it. This difference in definition has brought many debates regarding the number of Jarrs and their semantic analysis. This study aims to investigate different definitions of Jarr suggested by grammarians through a descriptive-analytic method to answer the following questions:
1. What are the labels and etymology of each Jarr?
2. Which definition matches more with the function of Jarr in Arabic?
3. What is the categorization of Jarr based on the agreed-upon definition?
4. How many Jarrs are there in Arabic and how many of those are used in the Quran?
The study aims to find a precise definition of Jarr to be matched with its functions in Arabic, particularly Quran, so that it could be taken as a scientific criterion to evaluate grammarians' ideas on definition, number, categorization, and function of Jarr.
The findings of the study suggest that:
1. The comprehensive definition of Jarr which is structurally and semantically matched with the general Arabic texts, particularly Quran and the Imams' narratives, is the one suggested by the early grammarians. Therefore, Jarr means to connect, convey, or make transition in the meaning of the verb and some words (e.g. derivatives, nouns derived from verbs, and noun clauses) to nouns, and nous to verbs. Based on this definition, Jarr, addition, and connection (Ibn Ghayim's expressions) have overlap, and Khafdh functions as the e'raab for these prepositions.
2. Based on the definition, Jarr should have at least two features. Firstly, it should connect the verb prior and the noun after it. Secondly, following the noun after it, it modifies the verb coming before. In other words, it belongs to the verb coming before. So, each preposition which does not have these two features cannot be taken as Jarr. Moreover, as the prepositions are not independent, and Jarr and Majroor belong to the verb coming prior, it is imperative to analyze the modifier and modified altogether to understand the meaning of Jarr and Majroor, meaning that the mere analysis of the preposition is not enough.
3. Khafdh is a noun to "Matta, Ki, La'al, Shaz". The use of Lola for the target pronoun and the connected Majroor makes the clause influent and reduced. So, even if it is a preposition, it cannot be included in the Jarr prepositions. "Hasha, Ada, Khala, Rab, Manz, and Maz" are nouns, too.
4. The Jarr prepositions, therefore, are "b, t, l, w, an, fi, men, ela, hatta, ala'a" all found in the Quran.
5. As Jarr prepositions need to be belonged and they function as means of transition for verbs, assuming them to be redundant is paradoxical and meaningless
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Arabic language
Published: 2020/07/31

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