Volume 13, Issue 4 (2022)                   LRR 2022, 13(4): 35-72 | Back to browse issues page


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sajjadi S Y, Letafati R, Gashmardi M, Safa P. Investigating the Status of Pragmatic Competence in the Field of French Language Teaching in Iran. LRR 2022; 13 (4) :35-72
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-50786-en.html
1- PhD in French Language Training, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2- Professor at the Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; , letafati@modares.ac.ir
3- Associate Professor at the Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (797 Views)
Pragmatic competence is the ability to use language properly in the social context. In order to gain this competence, the learner must align his / her linguistic and social knowledge with different forms and pragmatic strategies of the language and be able to use all the components of his / her communication skills in an integrated situation. In this article, the position of developing Pragmatic competence in the field of French language teaching in Iran is investigated. The purpose of this study, in addition to defining the pragmatic competence in the field of language teaching, is to investigate the use and development of this skill by Iranian French teachers. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared to collect information and distributed among fifty Iranian teachers. Random sampling method was used to select the sample size. The research method is descriptive-survey and the research tool includes a questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated to be 0.90 using Cronbach's alpha test. Data analysis using sample t-test, correlation test and independent t-test shows that although the development of this skill increases with age and experience of teachers, the use of activities related to its development has little place in the French language class and this Contrary to the positive opinion of teachers to cultivate this aspect of language communication skills. Therefore, it is suggested that in future research, solutions be introduced to Iranian teachers of French so that they can adapt their teaching performance to the needs of language learners and make their language learners skilled in what is called semantic skills

1. Introduction
Language and culture are two inseparable entities. and the language makes dialogue between cultures possible. If it is possible to acquire a certain cultural competence without resorting to the language of a people, it is impossible to learn a language independently of its culture. We can, for example, familiarize ourselves with Japanese culture by studying the art and civilization of this country, without learning the Japanese language, but we cannot communicate properly in Japanese without acquiring some cultural competence in that language.
In Iran, where there is a mixed education context and a exolingual in relation to the French language, literature is a space conducive to making learners aware of the cultural dimensions and social skills of the foreign language, which are essential for a effective communication with French-speaking interlocutors.
In this article we collected information from Iranian teachers of French as a foreign language through a questionnaire to find out how well they practice the pragmatic competence of their learners. The results showed that while the time devoted to the development of the pragmatic competence of the learners increases with the age and the experience of the teachers, the implementation of the activities to develop the pragmatic competence in the classes of FLE does not is not well integrated, despite the favorable opinion of the teachers to work on this aspect of the competence to communicate linguistically. This study provides FFL teachers in Iranian institutional settings with information that would help them adapt their lesson practices to the needs of learners and thus train competent social actors at the level of pragmatic competence.
Research Question(s)
  1. To what extent is the development of semantic skills of French language learners considered in Iran?
  2. How can this skill be developed among Iranian language learners?

2. Literature Review
Leach (1983) divides semantics into two parts: semantics - sociological and semantics  linguistics. After Leach, many people came up with more details about these two branches; In particular, Thomas (1983) enumerates the semantic failures resulting from each of the two branches in foreign language teaching. He says language speakers should have specific rules and conventions to allow them to understand each other's purpose in communication at certain times.
In Iran, researchers in the field of language teaching have shown interest in studying this issue. Hashemian (2012) in an article examining the intercultural differences of semantic rules in performing the verbal act of rejecting the request between Persian-speakers and English-speakers and has come to the conclusion that unlike Persian speakers who were ahead of English-speakers in the use of indirect solutions , English speakers mostly use strategies that are related to direct rejection.
In order to better understand the role of semantics in the field of language teaching, which is referred to semantic skills, it is necessary to review the important theories that have been proposed over time to define semantics in order to understand the place of semantics and semantic skills in a common framework. It should be noted that this article is a description of the same principles presented in the common European framework of semantic skills.

2.1. Index pragmatic: from situation to speech
The index pragmatic studies the role of all the elements that exist in the production situation of the utterance, and it is not enough to suffice only with the linguistic meaning and structure of the sentence or utterance.

2.2. From speech to situation: pragmatic integrated with the theory of utterances (spoken verbs)
The effect or result of an action indirectly affects the situation and the situation is completely dependent on it. The third component affects speakers and forces them to perform actions (eg, movement, fear, laughter, or sadness). Thus, the action in the third component describes the consequences of the second component.

2.3. Fundamental pragmatic
This science is based on the studies of Grace, Gozder, Levinson, Sperber and Wilson. The funfamental pragmatic hypothesis is that verbal communication is often implicit and mandatory, and therefore it is only with semantic references that the coded message of a statement can be fully interpreted.

2.4. Official position: Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
 The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages enumerates the skills of "discourse", "function" and "schema creation" within the context of semantic skills. Semantic skill is the knowledge that the user / learner has in the following principles:
A. How to organize, construct and adapt messages to the situation (discourse ability);
B. How to use messages to perform communication functions (functional capability);
C. How to split messages according to interactive and hyperactive schemas (ability to create schemas)

3. Methodology
In the present study, in order to find the answer to the question of how much attention is paid to the development of semantic skills of language learners in Iran, based on the case study method, we developed a questionnaire addressed to French language teachers. The questionnaire has four sections, the first of which contains questions about gender, age, level of education and teaching experience, and the next three sections include questions about the three main components of semantic skills, respectively. SPSS software (version 23) was used to analyze the data and one-sample independent t-test and correlation test were used to analyze them. The reliability of the questionnaire was also confirmed using Cronbach's test. In the questionnaire, for each question, a range of five options is considered to fit the scale of data for analysis with SPSS23.

4. Results
According to the analysis of the research findings, it seems that the development of pragmatic skills in French language classes in Iran is not focused as it should be. However, the instructors participating in this study stated that developing this skill, which is one of the components of language communication skills, is very important, and learning and nurturing it in any group of language learners with high and low language skills is very important, and the ability improves the learner in understanding and producing various speech actions. However, in practice, participants were reluctant to use methods to develop this skill. This may be the result of teachers' unfamiliarity with how to develop semantic skills. One of the findings of the research is that giving importance to the development of's cognitive skills of language learners has no significant relationship with the gender and level of education of the teacher; However, the older the teacher's teaching profession, the more he / she pays attention to the development of learners' semantic skills, and therefore a meaningful and direct relationship between these variables prevails. The results of this study indicate a gap in the development of semantic skills; Hence, it is suggested to teachers to include the development of semantic skills in their teaching and learning programs in order to improve the semantic knowledge of learners in general and their ability related to verbal actions in particular
 
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: language teaching
Published: 2022/10/2

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