Volume 13, Issue 4 (2022)                   LRR 2022, 13(4): 121-152 | Back to browse issues page


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Rezvani V. Analysis of Linguistic Structures in Creating Jokes in Russian and Persian. LRR 2022; 13 (4) :121-152
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-52362-en.html
Assistant Professor, Department of Russian Language, Faculty of Literature, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran , v.rezvani@alzahra.ac.ir
Abstract:   (662 Views)
In this paper, with the approach of discourse analysis from two structural and thematic perspectives, we try to classify the structures of jokes in Persian and Russian language based on the views of Robert Liu by dividing it into two categories: linguistic and non-linguistic, and on Karasik’s theory based on the classification of semantic and semiotics analysis by inductive method. The purpose of this study is to identify the language tools for jokes production based on linguistic and semantic structures in both Russian and Persian, due to the differences in the lexical structure of Russian as a Fusional language and Persian as a Agglutinative language. The present aims to test the hypothesis of the existence of language diversity of Russian joke production tools and the effect of cultural and value components in the production of non-linguistic jokes. At the end of this study, grammatical jokes were identified with a variety of instrumental languages and in the non-linguistic category of gender, ethnic and political examples. The frequency of linguistic examples in two languages is significantly lower than the non-linguistic category, and gender and political examples have a clear maximum against other semantic subsets of jokes.
 The genre of humor in various forms such as fables and short stories has criticized and challenged the categories of life in its various political, economic, cultural, social and religious domains. This research has been done with the content and thematic analysis approach of satires based on the approach of discourse analysis from two structural and thematic perspectives, the body of jokes in Persian and Russian languages based on the views of Robert Liu1 is divided into two categories: linguistic and non-linguistic and Karasik theory. The purpose of this study is to identify the language of jokes production tools due to the differences in the lexical structure of Russian as an Fusional language and Persian as the combination of Fusional, Agglutinative and at syntactic level both are known as Analytical language. The research hypothesis is based on the existence of language diversity of Russian joke production tools with the maximum ratio against Persian language for the reasons mentioned earlier in the linguistic classification and the effect of cultural and value components in the production of non-linguistic jokes.
There are many different functions of humor, among which they can be attributed to entertainment, education, promotion of moral values, criticism and demanding reform in various issues The question arises, according to the structure of each language, which tool is common and which is specific? What is the maximum and minimum of each of them in these two languages? what are the similarities and differences between the function of humor in Iran and Russia? What is the frequency of humor considered by each of the two societies and in which category of humor.
 By analyzing samples of the field, it seems that humor is a tool to control power and endurance in a soft way and at a higher level to show the consciousness, creativity and culture of human societies. Scientific study of this issue can help in cultural, political and accurate translation of various texts, especially social texts. In this research, a confrontational-qualitative research method based on body analysis of more than 260 samples of jokes in Russian and 200 Persian jokes collected from cyberspace has been used. The selection of jokes, especially linguistic jokes in both languages, was very limited, and the Russian language selection reference site: http://new.gramota.ru/biblio/gostinaya/lingvisticheskie-anekdoty, and other sites for other keywords in this query was used. In Persian, from the sites: https://www.barkhat.news, https://namnak.com, https://www.pinterest.com, https://www.beytoote.com, it was possible to use both. Because in both Russian and Persian sections, the mentioned sites are organizationally controlled sites and they avoid including out-of-the-ordinary content.
The novelty of this study lies in the fact that by analyzing the linguistic structures, the semantic range of words in the morphology and syntax sections is determined and it helps translators and language learners in understanding abstract semantics.
Linguistic satires mock the rules of language and do not notice a particular person or social event, so they are far removed from social functions and provide more entertainment, and have had a similar pattern in Russian and Persian from the past to the present in:
***معلم: ناقل یعنی چی؟
 آقا اجازه : ناقل یعنی کسی که،  به سادگی قل نمیخورد و کلا با غلت زدن رابطه خوبی ندارد.
Teacher: What does carrier mean?
 Student: A carrier is someone who does not giggle easily and does not have a good relationship with rolling at all.
*** Если бы русские любили работать, они не назвали бы включатель, выключателем.
(If the Russians liked to work, they would not call a switch, a switch)
Russian humor refers to the prefix [Вы-], which means outside, and such meanings in combination with verbs of movement and the other verbs, in contrast to the prefix [В-], which means beginning, entering.
 
Social stereotypes are generally a standardized image of phenomena with various emotional aspects. These stereotypes are very resistant to change and the transition to new beliefs and a democratic society.
***خانم از شوهرش می
 پرسه: موقع ازدواج چه کسی منو به تو معرفی کرد؟
-      شوهر: چه میدونم دشمن زیاده.
*** The lady asks her husband: Who introduced me to you when for marrage?
Husband: I don’t know a there is lot of enemies.
***Гаишник останавливает машину, за рулём блондинка.
— Почему вы не включили свет в туннеле?
— Я из Ростова, откуда я знаю, где у вас тут в туннеле свет включается?!
*** The traffic cop stops the car, the blonde is driving.
- Why didn't you turn on the light in the tunnel?
- I'm from Rostov, how do I know where the light turns on in your tunnel ?!
This literary genre has undergone changes today. The purpose of recent productions is not to improve the situation compared to the past, but behind it is destruction, humiliation, devaluation, which is very bitter and biting. By examining the collected samples, the most frequently extracted axes can be selected in the following way:
1- Devaluation of the family institution and breaking educational taboos for young people.
2- Referring to gender inferiority;
3- The emergence of ethnic stereotypes;
4- Emergence of political stereotypes.
At the end of the study of humorous figures, the language of grammatical tools (linguistic) and in the non-linguistic category, the categories of sexuality, ethnicity and politics were identified in two languages. The frequency of linguistic examples is significantly lower in both languages than the non-linguistic category, and gendered and political examples have a clear maximum compared to other semantic subsets of jokes. According to the hypothesis of this research, it is appropriate for social decision makers to be aware of some of the negative effects of such satires that are unstoppable.



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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Russian
Published: 2022/10/2

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