Volume 14, Issue 2 (2023)                   LRR 2023, 14(2): 461-492 | Back to browse issues page


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1- PhD Student of Persian Language and Literature, University of Kurdistan
2- Professor of Persian Language and Literature, University of Kurdistan , p.yaghoobi@uok.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1893 Views)
Received: 25 July 2021
Received in revised form: 9 November 2021
    Accepted: 2 December 2021
The tradition of mystic biography writing, with the writing of two forms of collective and personal identification, is the continuation of Islamic historiography, which uses the tradition of documenting and objectifying the science of hadith to validate itself and creates facts about mystics or mystics. From an epistemological point of view, the construction of the mentioned reality is the result of the selection and selection of the author-narrator or narrators who represent it based on special epistemology or ideological attachments. This point is especially noticeable in personal ID cards due to the density of events and details. One of these tazkirahs is Manaqib al-Arifin Aflaki, which was written about Mowlavi and his entourage. In this article, the narrative-discursive validity of the reality created by Aflaki in representing the events of Mowlvi's life has been implied and interpreted in a descriptive-analytical way. The theoretical basis of the research is the opinions of some experts in social semiotics and critical discourse analysis, whose implications have been explained from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. The result showed that the author-narrator documents and believable from a quantitative point of view some of his created facts by using the four modality categories of numbers, emphasis, narrative frequency and narrative continuity with high causality. From a qualitative point of view, first of all, based on relying on the narrator-focusing cognitive tools, such as the sense of sight, hearing and touch, which indicate the perceiver's "here" and "now", some other events are objective and tangible. Then, with legitimizing methods such as referring to the holy system, referring to the Sunnah, rationalizing and exaggerating another part of them, it is documented and real.


1. Introduction
Mystical biography writing and recording the lives and sayings of parents and mystics is one of
the most important genres in the history of mystical literature because of its special role in our cultural and social past. History was very important for the Muslims of the early Islamic period and historiography was born in the shadow of  Scholars of hadith science , which means collecting, editing and interpreting the reports related to the words and behavior of the Prophet and examining its narrators, had become the main activity and standard of Islamic scholars, and in a more general view, documents became a principle for organizing Education had become science of hadith was one of the methods of criticism that classified both hadith narrators into categories such as reliable, acceptable, and weak, as well as the text of hadith (Robinson, 2012, p. 166). Documents provide the possibility of controlling obvious forgeries and historical anomalies and verifying the authenticity and inauthenticity of hadiths. Accuracy in documents, quoting the news with credit from the compiler, allows the reader to know that what is being said is not just a story. In order to understand the emergence of the tradition of Muslim historiography, it is especially important to pay attention to the prominent story aspect of the written narrative, whether it is real or not. The two key words in this context are "hadith" and "news", the current construction of both of which means reporting. It is necessary to remember that Islamic historiography gradually freed itself from the sensitivities of the hadith scholars and the third century is the beginning of the flowering of Muslim classification.
The tradition of classification, which was popularized as a form of history writing, attracted the attention of Sufists and mystics, and under all religions, a narrative was usually formed in order to describe the early faces of the religion, the way of religion and conduct. Show the elders of the religion and set an example for the religion of Islam. The classification of mystics and mystics can be divided into two groups, collective and private, from the point of view of the degree of inclusion of the people under discussion. Collective tazkira books represent the life of a large number of mystics and mystics, and private tazkira is specifically about a Sufi or mystic. The book Manaqib al-Arifin by Shamsuddin Ahmad Aflaki (died 761 A.H.) is one of the exclusive tazkirehs in the biographies of Baha Wold, Maulana and his companions. The book is in ten chapters.
Aflaki started the book at the request of Molavi's grandson and his successor, Amir Arif in 718 AH and finished it in 754 AH.

2. Methodology
Biographies are written with different mechanisms and mystical notes play a significant role in creating the reality or realities of the life of mystics. Facts are created in tazkirehs and tazkireh reports are a form of mystical narration, the degree of objectivity and reality depends on the vision of the tazkireh writers. In this article, the narrative-discursive validity of the reality created by Molavi in Manaqib al-Arifin Aflaki has been identified and interpreted in a descriptive-analytical way and a narrative-discourse approach in the form of the following two questions: 1) Quantitative implications of validating the reality created by Aflaki Which was about Maulvi? How has the author-narrator represented them? 2) How are the levels of qualitative accreditation to the reality created by Aflaki regarding Molavi and its documentary supports arranged in the text?

3. Results
In this article, the result of narrative narrative-discourse explanation of Aflaki's constructed reality in Manaqib al-Arifin is described and analyzed from two qualitative and quantitative perspectives as follows:
The quantitative view of denotation indicates that the author-narrator tries to present the facts with high causality or majoritarianism by tending to four categories of modality or aspect such as numbers, emphasis, narrative frequency and narrative continuity. to mark vocabulary and narration to attract the audience-listener's opinion and make the reality believable for him. At the lexical level, these modalities sometimes serve to confirm and stabilize the represented reality, sometimes by mentioning precise numbers, sometimes in an approximate form representing the majority, sometimes with maximum emphatic adverbs. In addition to this, at the narrative level, the author relies on the frequency of the narrative and the repetition of the event that happened twice or more, or based on the continuity modality of the narrative, which provides a large space of time and space for the representation of the event and shows the constructed reality in a prominent way.
From a qualitative point of view, the author-narrator on the same level by mentioning the perceptive-sensual tools of the narrator-focalizer such as the sense of sight, hearing and touch which indicates his "now" and "here", shows the distance of the perceiver with the event, and some of It makes the facts tangible and objective. Then, on another level, it documents some other fabricated facts by relying on the sources of turning power into authority or legitimizing supports such as citing the holy system, referring to the Sunnah, rationalization, and splendour. With this description, the author-narrator of Manaqib al-Arifin organizes and stabilizes the validity of his created reality about Maulavi and the life around him from a narrative-discourse point of view - not necessarily moral.
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Discourse Analysis
Published: 2023/01/30

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