Volume 14, Issue 2 (2023)                   LRR 2023, 14(2): 525-562 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


1- PhD student of Islamic Azad University - Tehran North Branch
2- Professor and Dean of the Faculty of Linguistics, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran , S_M_ASSI@IHCS.AC.IR
3- Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
4- Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature Research Center, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1569 Views)
The way of arranging proverbs in dictionaries has been one of the most important problems for lexicographers and paremiographers. Therefore in this study, based on cognitive semantic approach, the way of arranging proverbs in dictionaries was considered. The purpose of the current study is to organize proverbs in dictionaries in a new, non-linear and non-alphabetical way and according to a scientific and theory-based approach. To achieve the purpose of the study, the following research question was proposed: How to use a way other than the usual alphabetical and linear way based on which proverbs are presented in dictionaries? To do this, based on descriptive-analytical method and cognitive semantics approach and its mechanisms, such as conceptual metaphor, conceptual metonymy and conventional knowledge, the authors have examined the data extracted from The great two-volume Dictionary of Persian Proverbs (Zolfaghari, 2009), The famous Proverbs of Iran (Soheili, 2005) and internet resources. The results indicated that according to semantic motivation and the concepts of target domains of the proverbs, a non-linear and non-alphabetical way can be proposed for arranging proverbs and their equivalents in order to reflect the conceptual structures of mind and language and to help language learners to learn and remember them easily.

1. Introduction
In this study, the proverbs are described and analyzed according to cognitive semantics approach, and applying this approach in lexicography is examined because the current dictionaries in general, and dictionary of proverbs in specific, are in alphabetical and linear way, therefore the users have some problems in finding a proverb and its meaning.
With the emergence of electronic dictionaries and due to the inadequacies of existing Persian dictionaries, a scientific and theory-based approach is required in lexicography. One of the most important issues in lexicography is the way of arranging entries including lexical items (words and groups of words) and their equivalents in a way that is useful to dictionary users. Accordingly the way of arranging proverbs in a dictionary is very important for lexicographers and paremiographers. There are some problems encountering a Persian dictionary of proverb which is organized in a linear and alphabetical way. One of these problems is that if a user doesn’t know the standard form of a proverb, she/he can’t find it easily in a dictionary because some proverbs start with different words (سیلی/ سرکۀ نقد به از حلوای نسیه- (ز) تعارف کم کن و بر مبلغ افزا). Other problem which is concerned with alphabetical ordering is that there isn’t any conceptual relation between the proverbs which are listing one by one and under a specific entry. And another problem is that non-Persian language learners can’t learn, understand and remember Persian proverbs easily.
According to above problems relating to dictionary of proverbs, cognitive linguists such as Geeraerts (2001) and Scabi (2002) pointed out the mutual relation between cognitive semantics and lexicography. Therefore the purpose of the current study is to organize proverbs in dictionary in a new non-linear and non-alphabetical way and according to a scientific and theory-based approach. To achieve the purpose of the study, the following research question was proposed: how to use a way other than the usual alphabetical and linear way based on which proverbs are presented in dictionaries?
2. Literature review
Regarding the subject of this paper which is about presenting proverbs in a new way in dictionaries, there isn’t any study in Persian language, but there are papers according to characteristics of first domain of conceptual metaphors in proverbs. But the authors of this paper (2020) have written about the ordering of idioms in dictionaries according to cognitive semantic approach before.
Among non-Persian studies, the authors can point out the study of Covecses and Szabo (1996) and Covecses and Csabi (2014) which are about the systematic conceptual motivation for the meaning of idioms. They believe that most of idioms are based on conceptual metaphor, conceptual metonymy and conventional knowledge and cognitive semantic approach can make the learning of idioms more easily for non-native speakers. Csabi (2002) also believe that cognitive linguistics is able to offer a useful framework for lexicographers and provide essential background information about language and language use, which in turn may help the creation of systematic and well-founded dictionaries, with rich knowledge about specific words, meanings, and idioms.
The difference between current study and the other mentioned studies, is that some of non-Persian studies based on cognitive semantics, just explained about how the entries follow each other, how the meanings are arranged, and how idioms are represented within the dictionary in a way that best suits the user’s needs. But in the current study, the authors have shown the new way of ordering proverbs in a dictionary practically.

3. Methodology
To do this, based on descriptive-analytical method and cognitive semantic approach and it’s mechanisms such as conceptual metaphor, conceptual metonymy and conventional knowledge, the authors have examined the data extracted from The great two-volume Dictionary of Persian Proverbs (Zolfaghary, 2009), The famous proverbs of Iran (Soheili, 2005) and internet resources.
In this study, proverbs, their meaning, metaphors, metonymy, conceptual domains, such as first and target domains, and their semantic motivation are mentioned in schedules. Then regarding the innovative way in lexicography, the result of these schedules are analyzed in some patterns relating to a specific theory (i.e metaphor, metonymy and conventional knowledge).
In this new way for ordering proverbs in a dictionary, lexicographers must take into account the target domain of proverbs. For example the source domain of ‘fire’ can be used to understand several abstract concepts, such as anger, love, imagination, energy, and etc. Or we can consider a target domain such as سماجت و پافشاری and list the proverbs which have this target domain in common below it; such proverbs can be:
1. مرغش یک پا دارد 2. روی یک پا ایستادن  3. دو پا را در یک کفش کردن
4. Results
The results indicated that most of the proverbs are analyzable according to cognitive semantic approach and its principals such as conceptual metaphors, conceptual metonymy, conventional knowledge, and conceptual motivation. In fact these principals are bases for describing and analyzing proverbs in Persian dictionaries which lead to an innovative way for organizing proverbs in a non-linear and non-alphabetical way. As an example we can consider the metaphoric  proverb: چوب تر را چنان که خواهی پیچ  نشود جز به آتش راست which its conceptual metaphor is:
 تربیت کردن پیچاندن چوب تر است  (raising a child means twisting a wet wood)
In this example, the exact meaning of the proverb is according to conceptual mapping of source domain (پیچاندن چوب تر) to target domain (تربیت کردن), along with correspondences between conceptual elements of source and target that leads to comprehend the target domain by way of source domain.
At the end, authors concluded that by applying this innovative, knowledge-base and theory-base method, and by using these three cognitive principals, and according to concepts of target domain and considering semantic motivation of proverbs, lexicographers can organize the proverbs in non-linear and non-alphabetical way that reflects the conceptual system of our mind, and makes learning and remembering easier for non-Persian or foreign  language learners.
 
Full-Text [PDF 1498 kb]   (508 Downloads)    
Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Linguistics
Published: 2023/05/31

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.