Volume 14, Issue 6 (2024)                   LRR 2024, 14(6): 177-209 | Back to browse issues page

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Assistant Professor of Persian Language Education, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran , shimaebrahimi@um.ac.ir
Abstract:   (3342 Views)
Education’s pivotal role in shaping cultural and identity elements is evident in its influence on both individuals and elites. This study explores sapioemotionality, referring to the emotional responses experienced by junior high school students when encountering elites. Persian language textbooks are considered crucial for cultural awareness. This study examines the portrayal of elites in these textbooks. Sapioemotionality, encompassing positive and negative convergence and divergence at individual and social levels, focuses on emotions elicited by elites’ presence. A total of 917 junior high students from various disciplines and levels participated in the study, completing the Sapioemotionality Questionnaire. The findings indicate significant gender disparities, with girls exhibiting higher sapioemotionality and a specific fascination with female elites. Tenth-grade students exhibited higher levels of sapioemotionality, which varied depending on their field of study. Mathematics-physics students demonstrated lower levels of sapioemotionality compared to literature and humanities, and experimental sciences students. A qualitative analysis of Persian Language textbooks, suggesting a shortfall in addressing sapioemotionality, with 76% of students perceiving a lack of attention to elites. These necessities textbook revisions that align with students’ emotional responses and cultural values, ensuring a more engaging and culturally relevant educational experience.

1. Introduction
The Curriculum Development Council prioritizes integrating Iranian identity into language and Persian literature textbooks, viewing them as key tools for cultural communication and motivation. Improving these textbooks, particularly in terms of cultural and identity elements, is a top priority for educational authorities. Additionally, individuals’ attitudes toward elites and celebrities, integral to national identity, can be shaped through textbooks that highlight their achievements.
Acknowledging the significance of investigating attitudes towards elites, the concept of “sapioemotionality” assesses emotions at individual and societal levels. The challenge of identity formation during adolescence further highlights the significance of socialization in shaping attitudes, emphasizing the critical role of textbooks in this process.
This study aims to examine Persian textbooks in grades ten to twelve as an effective tool for introducing Iranian culture, across various disciplines of literature and humanities, experimental sciences, and mathematics-physics. Initially, students’ sapioemotionality levels are assessed to gain insights into their emotional responses to elites. Additionally, students’ satisfaction with the portrayal of elites is evaluated. This is then compared with their sapioemotionality levels to assess the alignment between textbook content and students’ emotional responses.

1.2. Research Questions
  1. Is there a significant difference in sapioemotionality between individual and societal levels among junior high school students?
  2. Is there a significant difference in sapioemotionality between female and male junior high school students at individual and societal levels?
  3. Is there a significant difference in sapioemotionality among junior high school students enrolled in different academic disciplines?
  4. Is there a significant difference in sapioemoionality among junior high school students pursuing different academic disciplines?
5-  How have elites and celebrities been portrayed in Persian textbooks (1) , (2), and (3) for junior high school?

2. Literature Review
2.1. Sapioemotionality
Sapioemotionality, introduced by Pishghadam et al. (2021), focuses on individuals’ attitudes toward elites in shaping societal culture and national identity. This constructivist concept explores emotional responses to elites, considering positive/negative convergence and positive/negative divergence at individual and societal levels.
Positive Convergence: High sapioemotionality at both levels indicates high societal value and appreciation for elites.
Negative Convergence: Low sapioemotionality at both levels implies societal indifference or negativity toward elites.
Positive Divergence: High individual, low societal sapioemotionality suggests personal inclination toward elites not shared by society.
Negative Divergence: Low individual, high societal sapioemotionality indicates societal encouragement despite individual disinterest.
These nuances provide insights into emotional responses to elites, especially in academic settings. The study aims to understand sapioemotionality convergence and divergence across different dimensions, illustrated in Figure 1 (Pishghadam et al., 2021).

Figure 1
Sapioemotionality Dimensions

The results of the study by Pishghadam et al. (2021) indicate a positive divergence trend in Iranian society, where individuals aspire to interact with elites amidst a lack of societal support. This imbalance has contributed to a decline in the value placed on knowledge and academic achievement in the academic environment. If this persists, despite efforts to foster elitism, the study suggests a decline in possible elitism among adolescents, as evidenced in educational textbooks, particularly Persian ones. The content analysis of these books is critical for introducing Iranian culture to students, emphasizing the focus of the present research.

3. Methodology
This research adopts a mixed-methods approach, combining a qualitative analysis of Persian textbooks for the second year of secondary education alongside a concurrent quantitative investigation of sapioemotionality among tenth to twelfth-grade students across various disciplines of literature and humanities, experimental sciences, and mathematics-physics.
3. 1. Participants
The study encompasses 917 students (627 females, 290 males) aged 15 to 19, distributed across tenth (n = 413), eleventh (n = 257), and twelfth grades (n = 247) in literature and humanities (n = 509), experimental sciences (n = 309), and mathematics-physics (n = 99). Participants responded to the Sapioemotionality Questionnaire.

3.2. Research Tools
The quantitative data were collected by Sapioemotionality Questionnaire, developed by Pishghadam et al. (2021), who established the validity and reliability of the scale (Cronbach's alpha 0.88). This 10-item questionnaire measures sapioemotionality at individual and social levels.
In the qualitative phase, student satisfaction with how elites are portrayed in Persian textbooks for junior high schools is assessed. These textbooks, across various disciplines, contribute to the national identity of being elite. The content of the textbooks is subjected to a qualitative analysis, involving a comparison of different chapters and lessons.

3.3. Data Collection Procedures
Quantitative data were collected online through the distribution of the Sapioemotionality Questionnaire to students nationwide. The data were analyzed in SPSS (Ver. 21) using a one-way ANOVA for statistical evaluation.

                                                                                   4. Results
The paired sample t-test revealed that among junior high school students, sapioemotionality at the individual level exceeded the social level (t(916) = 31.13, p = 0.00). An independent t-test showed that female students had higher sapioemotionality than males at the individual level (t(915) = 3.45, p = 0.001). In comparison, female students exhibited higher sapioemotionality than males at the social level (t (915) = 3.88, p = 0.00).
Regarding sapioemotionality across grades, a one-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference (F(2, 914) = 6.92,  p = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons revealed higher sapioemotionality in tenth-grade students (36.63), compared to eleventh-grade (35.55) and twelfth-grade students (35.07). No significant difference was found between eleventh and twelfth-grade students. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences among literature and humanities, experimental sciences, and mathematics-physics students (F(2, 914) = 6.92, p = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons revealed lower sapioemotionality in mathematics-physics students (34.21), compared to literature and humanities (35.87) and experimental sciences students (36.17). No significant difference was observed between students of literature and humanities and students of experimental sciences.
After analyzing the textbooks, it was found that attention to elites was limited. This prompted a qualitative question in the Sapioemotionality Questionnaire. In fact, 76% of students believed that there was little attention, 19% felt there was moderate attention, and only 5% believed there was significant attention. This lack of attention raised concerns given the potential impact on students’ behavioral and performance models during the identity crisis period.
Considering the emotional weight of language, it is crucial to align educational content with students’ interests. The research suggests tailoring attention to elites in textbooks based on gender characteristics and age to cultivate cultural values. The study emphasizes the need for future research on “emolings” related to elites in educational content, aiming for a more nuanced discourse and positive sapioemotionality.
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Farsi language
Published: 2024/01/30

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