Volume 9, Issue 6 (2019)                   IQBQ 2019, 9(6): 297-316 | Back to browse issues page

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ATHARI NIKAZM M, Ahmadi S. Analyzing Figurative Dimension of Rebellion and Liberation in Forough Farrokhzad’ Poem: "Let's Believe in the Beginning of the Cold Season" . IQBQ. 2019; 9 (6) :297-316
URL: http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-14-20846-en.html
1- Shahid Beheshti University
2- Allameh University , sohrabahmadi1991@gmail.com
Abstract:   (658 Views)
Forough Farrokhzad, Persian contemporary poet, was born and grown up in a society where the female poets were less rebellious against the values, the values which were rooted in the cultural background and beliefs of Iranians. In 20th and early 30th , Forough decided to escape the contracts and norms. Her first reactions were rebellious. The demand for emancipation in her first three poems, "captive", "wall" and "rebellion" represents this issue against the beloved and the values of the male-dominated society. In the "Other Birth", she criticized the patriarchal domination of society and began to explicit all the dominant values of society. In most of her poems, the poet wants to leave everything that she throws at her and always sees the obstacle to this emancipation; this barrier can be man, law, society, or human. But in the "Let's believe in the beginning of the cold season," she rather criticizes the modern Man. In her latest work, the poet portrays the themes such as rebellion and emancipation in abstract and in some cases multi-dimensional manner. Specially in the poem " Let's believe in the beginning of the cold
season", which is also the title of the collection, the poet expresses her desire to rebel and then to liberation in various ways.
            Therefore, it can be said that this rebellion is, in the first poems of the Forough, has obviously two senses, first of all, the love that comes from the feminine passion and then the rebellion against the beloved-woman contracts in his contemporary society. Moving through the first poems of Forough and following her poetic path, we find that the poet faces a number of ups and downs in expressing the concepts in her poem, most of them follow the same form. But what we see in the books after the "captive" and "the wall", is the expression of these two concepts with more poetic images and other poetic arrangements. In fact, the poet has never ignored the rebellion during the stages of maturity, but rather propagated it with new ways of expression.
Our hypothesis is that the theme of rebellion in these works is personal most often unidimensional or bi-dimensional, but what is said in the poems of her two latest works, it is very important to go beyond the personality of the poet and, therefore, to move from personal revenge and to reach “the social self” for “the collective rebellion”.
From the beginning to her final poems , the poets seeks to express this rebuke, which include expressions, images, metaphors, analogies and poetic arrangements. Of course, it should be pointed that this measures are not conscious, rather it would be her won worldview. In addition to the rebellion, another important issue is the belief of liberation from persecution. In fact, for Forough Farrokhzad, the liberation is a kind of attempt to find a solution to the breakthrough, and that liberation is expressed with various poetic forms.
By adopting a semiotic approach to literary discourse analysis, the authors tried to analyzed the visual dimension of Forough's poetry in the representation of the concept of liberation and rebellion. Thus the main objective of the current research  was to show that the visual dimension was one of the main structures of the meaning of the text. Our hypothesis was that the figurative dimension in Forough's poetry is  the concept of rebellion and emancipation, and sometimes the abstraction of this dimension makes it difficult for the reader to understand the meaning. This paper consisted of three parts. Following the research background, which focused mostly on sources that analyze Forough's poem from thematic-structural perspective,the authors have discussed the methods, and approaches of semiotic theories of Paris school to text analysis, which defines the figurative dimension.
In the end, the authors have shown some Forough’s poetry characteristics that are remarkable. First, the negation of all social and poetic constraints, in relation to the man, the beloved, the nature and the love. The next step has been attributed to the liberation theme. The love has different aspects in Forough's poetry and is not valued, the only thing that gives hope to the poet is the season that is cold. This image of the cold that was from the beginning continues throughout the poem with the changes of comparison and metaphor and in the end, it is again the center of the poet's interest. Thus Forough's poetry has a spatio-temporal isotopy and at the end the first picture appears, which is due to the uniqueness of the image of rebellion and liberation. In the case we want to show the figurative dimension on the basis of model proposed by  Denis Bertrand, we must say the figurativity goes in the negative direction, towards the conceptualization and not on a clear and explicit direction.
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Received: 2018/05/14 | Accepted: 2019/02/1 | Published: 2019/02/1

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