Volume 13, Issue 1 (2022)                   LRR 2022, 13(1): 167-197 | Back to browse issues page


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Al-Daghi A. The Effect of Grammar on Handwriting Skills and Writing Motivation of Elementary School Students with Writing Disorder in District 18 of Tehran. LRR 2022; 13 (1) :167-197
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-41278-en.html
Department of Persian Language and Literature, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran , A_aldaghi@pnu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (3742 Views)
The results of data analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of post-test in the experimental and control groups after the training of handicraft skills. That is, handwriting skills training had a significant effect on handwriting skills (uniform letter size and vocabulary, letter alignment, and spacing between letters) and motivation for students with learning disabilities. And the accuracy of the letter form and the legibility of the letters do not improve under the influence of the skill training of the hand. So it is better to improve these skills in other ways and through other trainings. The results of data analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of post-test in the experimental and control groups after the training of handicraft skills. That is, handwriting skills training had a significant effect on handwriting skills (uniform letter size and vocabulary, letter alignment, and spacing between letters) and motivation for students with learning disabilities. And the accuracy of the letter form and the legibility of the letters do not improve under the influence of the skill training of the hand. So it is better to improve these skills in other ways and through other trainings.


  1.  Introduction
The present study investigated the effect of the grammar independent variable on research-related variables, namely handwriting and writing motivation of students with writing disorders in District 18 of Tehran. In order to study the relationships between independent variables and dependent variables, the experimental method with pre-test-post-test design was chosen as the research method. Accordingly, the statistical population includes all students with writing disorders in the first to third grades of the elementary school in District 18 of Tehran in the academic year 1397-1398. The statistical sample was purposefully selected and included 30 students who had a writing disorder in the first to third grades of the elementary school. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and control groups and the experimental group was given grammar skills training for 21 sessions. In order to measure the studied variables in this research, Minnesota handwriting skills test, Raven color intelligence test and researcher-made writing motivation test have been used. In order for the selected children not to have mental disabilities, color Raven intelligence test was used and Minnesota test and writing motivation test were used in the pre-test and post-test stages. The motor program used in this study is also a selection of the Lincoln-Ozortsky motor development scale, which includes fine motor skills related to the hand. Then, the analysis of covariance test was used to test the research hypotheses based on the collected data. The results of data analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of post-test in the experimental and control groups after training in grammar skills. This means that teaching grammar skills have a significant effect on handwriting skills (uniform letter and word size, maintaining the alignment of letters relative to the written lines and the fit of the space between the letters) and the writing motivation of students with learning disabilities and the correctness of the shape of the letters and the readability of the letters do not improve under the influence of teaching grammar skills. So it is better to improve these skills in other ways and through other trainings.

2. Literature review
Learning Disabilities is one of the major topics in the field of psychology and education of children with special needs (exceptional) and educational psychology, which has been considered since the second and third decades of the twentieth century in developed countries, especially in Europe and the United States and It was noticed a decade ago in Iran. The term learning disability stems from the need to identify and serve students who consistently fail in their homework and yet do not fit into the exceptional age range of children. They have a natural appearance, their physical growth and height and weight indicate that they are normal. Their intelligence is more or less normal, they speak well, play like other children and communicate with others like their peers. They also have the necessary help at home and do well the work that their parents leave them to do. But they do not have the ability to flow the information to express and especially to write. Therefore, according to the general characteristics of these students, they can be placed in a new group called students with learning disabilities, and it can be said that students have disorders in one or more psychological processes related to comprehension using oral or written language, which can be complete inability to listen, speak, read, write, spell, or perform mathematical calculations (Fletcher et al., 2007).

3. Research Methodology
The research design is a pre-test-post-test design. After selecting students with writing disorders, the designated students were tested by Raven Color Test. Raven Color IQ test was used to determine the IQ of students with learning disabilities. All the students were right-handed. Simple random sampling was used to form the experimental group and the first control group. The individuals were divided into experimental and control groups in a homogeneous manner. Individuals were grouped according to IQ and educational background. The individuals in each group were then evaluated based on the standardized Minnesota Writing Skills Test and their performance in the pre-test title writing skills was recorded.
The statistical population studied in this study is all students with writing disorders in the first to the third grade of the elementary school in district 18 of Tehran in the academic year 1397-1398.
The sample under study in this research was purposefully selected and includes 30 students who had a writing disorder in the first to the third grades of elementary school.

4. Results and conclusion
Of the 30 students selected, 14 were boys and 16 were girls. Their IQ, which was assessed using the Raven Color IQ test, was within our acceptable range of 90 to 100. Among them, about 10 students were studying in the first grade, 10 of them were in the second grade, and 10 were studying in the third grade.
Grammar on the writing motivation of students with effective writing disorders, according to the research findings in comparison with the experimental group with the control group, it was concluded that grammar has a significant effect on handwriting skills and writing motivation in children with elementary school writing disorders; Thus, there was a significant difference between the mean scores related to handwriting skills and writing motivation in children with writing disorders in each experimental and control group and the main hypothesis of the research is confirmed. The results of this research are consistent with the research results of Akhavast (2009), Asadidoust (2008), Taghavi (2011), Uon (2008), Farsberg (2009), Engels Man (2013). Explaining the results of this hypothesis, it should be stated that the use of grammar training improves eye-hand coordination, motor sequence, body schema and information processing. Learning writing skills is enhanced by performing grammar skills, which is effective and possible in the child's performance. The use of such teachings promotes learning in writing concepts and increases the motivation to write assignments in students with writing disorders.

 
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Farsi language
Published: 2022/01/21

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