Volume 14, Issue 4 (2023)                   LRR 2023, 14(4): 1-30 | Back to browse issues page


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Khosravi Savadjani N, Rostampour Maleki R, Asghari J. Transfmission of Signs of Adonis' Poetry in Expressive Essence in Persian (According to Umberto Eco's View). LRR 2023; 14 (4) :1-30
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-55984-en.html
1- PhD student, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculity of Literature,Alzahra University, Tehran,Iran
2- Professor Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculity of Literature,Alzahra University, Tehran,Iran , r.rostampour@alzahra.ac.ir
3- Associate Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (3903 Views)
The details of the fundamental mechanisms of translation can be analyzed through Semiotics. In his various works, Umberto Eco, one of the semioticians, has studied the symbolic aspects of translation. Umberto Eco's semiotics is based on how the text is combined with the reader's personal and cultural encyclopedia. In Echo's view, text has two levels of expression and content, and in poetry, expression prevails over content. In translation of poetry, the expression essence in the target text tries to be equal to the essence of expression in the source text so that it can affect the audience almost like the source text. The present investigation, using a descriptive-analytical method and a semiotic approach based on Umberto Eco's view, studies the transfer of Adonis's poetic signs at expressive substance level in the Persian translation process .To this purpose, Adonis's three volume book entitled" the past, the place of the present" translated by Amirhossein Allahyari (2019) is examined. At linguistic essence level, words and grammar are studied, and at the level of non-linguistic essence, puns, rhymes and melodies are studied. The result of this research shows that the transfer of the signs of Adonis's poetry in Allahyari translation is more pronounced at the level of non-linguistic essence. In order to convey the signs of Adonis's poetry in translation, after establishing a connection between the various linguistic and non-linguistic essences in the text of the poem, Allahyari negotiates them and uses encyclopedic information to create a text in the target language that affects the audience like Adonis's poetry; In this regard, he has sometimes neglected his allegiance to the essence of language.

1. Introduction
The significance of poetry among the Persian speakers, position of contemporary Arabic poetry in world literature, and the cultural affinity between Iranians and Arab countries' people have resulted in increasing the translation of contemporary Arabic poetry into Persian in the recent years. In order to analyze the translations, various methods can be used. Semiotics is one of these methods that analyzes the transfer of signs from one language to another one. Umberto Eco is also one of the semioticians who have used semiotic approach in his various works to study the translation.
The three-volume collection of Al-Katab: Ams al-Makan Al-aan has special importance  among the works of Adonis a prominent contemporary Arab poet. Amir Hossein Allahyari, who is a lyricist himself and has literal translation published the Persian translation of this poetry collection for the first time in 1396 A.H. and it has been published three times  so far.

2. Questions and Hypotheses
The present study tries to answer these questions: 1. In which levels of expressive substance is the transfer of the signs of Adonis's poem in Al-Hiary translation more evident? 2. In the process of transferring the signs of Adonis's poem into Persian language, what methods did Al-Hiari use? The considered hypotheses are as follows: 1. Transferring the signs of Adonis's poem in Allahiari's translation has a greater expression at the level of non-linguistic essence. 2. In order to convey the signs of Adonis's poem in translation, after establishing a relationship between various linguistic and non-linguistic essences in the poetic text, Ellahiari negotiated them and using encyclopedic information, he created a text in the target language affecting the audience like Adonis's poem. be; In this regard, he has sometimes has abandoned loyalty to the linguistic essence.

3. Research method
The present study seeks to use Umberto Eco's semiotics ,which is based on content and expression, to investigate how the signs of Adonis's poem are transferred at the level of expressive substance in Allahiari translation. Examining the basic concepts in Eco's semiotics, this study has used his opinions in the book entitled " Saying the Approximate Same Thing" to investigate how to transfer the signs of Adonis's poem into Persian language. Since the mentioned book has not been translated into Farsi, the Arabic  translation of it by Ahmad Al-Samai entitled "An Naqul Al-sheé Taqriba" has been used (2012). In this book, Eko uses the opinions of Yilmazlev, Peirce and the encyclopedia model for translation, and based on this, he explains his position about some of the translated works. The data of the research was selected from the three-volume collection Al-Ketab: The Past, the Place Now (2018), which is translated by Al-Katab: Ams Al-Makan Al-Aan Adonis, and as said, Amir Hossein Allahyari translateded it into Persian.

4. Results
Text is a combination of signs and is formed by referring to often context-based and culture-based codes. The manner of combination of text with the encyclopedia of the reader's personal and cultural knowledge forms the core of eco semiotics. From Eco's point of view, the text has two levels of expression and content, and each of these two levels has different essences. In the text of the poem where the expression dominates the content, there are also non-linguistic essences at the level of expression in addition to the linguistic essence. Eco believes that two source and destination texts cannot have the same impact  on their readers. Therefore, the translator negotiates with the text and finally decides to delete some effects of the original text and transfer some to the target text according to the goals of the text. In poetry translation, the essence of expression in the target text tries to be equal to the linguistic and non-linguistic essence of the source text so that it can have almost the same effect on the target audience as the effect of source text on the target audience.
Transferring the signs of Adonis's poem in Allahyari's translation has a greater expression at the level of non-linguistic substance. In order to convey the signs of Adonis's poem, the translator, after communicating between the linguistic and non-linguistic essences in the poetic text, negotiated them and created a text in the target language that would have the same effect as Adonis's poem on the audience; In this regard, he has sometimes abandoned loyalty to the linguistic essence.
At the linguistic essence level, according to the context of Adonis's poem and the cultural and linguistic issues of the source and target texts, the translator has transferred vocabulary and grammatical rules in such a way that the target text has the same effect on the audience as the source text. Sometimes, in order to be faithful to the intentions of the text, after explaining the core content of a word to himself, he negotiated about the obvious violation of the literal meaning of that word and ignored the literal meaning of the word, and sometimes he made mistakes in the translation.
In the translation of non-linguistic essences such as puns, rhymes and beats, Allahyari has tried to transfer the signs from Adonis' poem in such a way that the poetry of the target text does not lack anything from the original text. At the level of puns, he has transferred the melodiousness from the source text to the target text by observing the puns in different sections, in the manner of the original text, and sometimes by negotiating whether to use the literal equivalent of the word or to observe the melodiousness of the text. It has decided to produce a melodious text by ignoring the literal meaning of the words and using Persian equivalent words to impress the audience with the musicality of the text. In addition to creating music in the translation of the poem repetition of some phonemes along with similar words has helped to induce some concepts to the audience of the target text, which are in line with the main goals of the text.
In the examples where, due to the existence of common words between Arabic and Persian, it has been possible to use the rhymes of the original text in the translation, the rhyme of the Adonis poem has been given without any change in the target text. Sometimes, ignoring the content of the source text and the linguistic essence, the translator has sought to consider the non-linguistic essence of the source text as an effective factor and, more than anything else, take the side of rhyme; even if the literal meaning of the source text is lost. The translator has tried to pay attention to the cultural issues of Persian and Arabic language in choosing rhymes.
Since the music of Adonis's poem is not limited to the prosody format and of poetry, but in the connection manner of words and the rhythms of his poetry, it is an amazing music the same as music of poem weight. In the translation of some phrases, Allahyari has failed to respect the dictionary level of the original text in order to preserve the rhythm


 
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Arabic language
Published: 2023/05/31

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