Volume 15, Issue 2 (2024)                   LRR 2024, 15(2): 355-394 | Back to browse issues page


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Anani Sarab M R, Aghazadeh S. Teachers’ Research Literacy: A Scoping Review of the Role of Teachers in Research and Research Literacy Models. LRR 2024; 15 (2) :355-394
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-60704-en.html
1- Associate Professor, Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran , anani@sbu.ac.ir; rez_ananisarab@yahoo.co.uk
2- Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (2384 Views)
In today's world, expanding the existing body of knowledge through research is one of the main pillars of progress in the educational system. To achieve this goal, it is necessary for teachers to have research literacy, which is a prerequisite for their engagement in research. Research literacy can improve the quality of educational processes by helping teachers to apply research-informed approaches in their classrooms. One of the first steps to empower teachers in this regard is to determine their current level of research literacy and identify the knowledge and skills that they need in order to engage in research effectively. The present study introduces the concept of research literacy as an essential construct with regard to teachers' research engagement and discusses its impact on improving teaching methods and ultimately the quality of education. Adopting a scoping review approach, this study elaborates on teachers’ roles in relation to the concept of research literacy. Furthermore, the proposed models for the construct of research literacy in the field of education are presented and evaluated. The findings of this study indicated that teachers need to have a critical understanding of research reports in order to find solutions to educational problems, make informed decisions, and implement the implications of research studies in their classrooms. Finally, aiming to strengthen the dynamism of the educational system and encourage teachers to put research findings into practice, a number of practical guidelines are proposed which can promote the status and culture of research in educational settings. 

1. Introduction
The assumption underlying the present study is that language teachers need to develop a certain level of research literacy to be able to teach effectively. Teachers are expected not only to be good consumers of research but also to be engaged in limited classroom research to improve the gap between theory and practice. Teacher education programs normally expose teachers to a core of research methods and design; however, it is not clear whether the courses designed for this purpose can equip teachers with the necessary knowledge and skills to carry out both functions mentioned above. To deal with this issue, the concept of research literacy has been proposed in the last two decades with a number of conceptual models operationalized in the form of research literacy instruments. The argument is that the first step, in a long term plan for developing research literacy among teachers, is to measure their level of research literacy. The purpose of the present study was conduct a scoping review of the conceptual models of research literacy and their components and to suggest strategies for its dissemination among language teachers.
Research Question(s)
How is research literacy defined and what conceptual models are proposed for research literacy in the relevant literature?

2. Literature Review
The literature review is mainly focused on (a) studies which have tried to demonstrate the complexity of effective teaching and the type and diversity of decisions that teacher are supposed to make in their teaching practice; (b) studies which have focused on teachers’ engagement with research and its importance for their teaching efficacy; (c) the studies which have dealt with the need for research literacy among teachers. As there is a lack of review studies to show the scope of issues related to research literacy it is argued that the present scoping review is necessary to deal with this gap.
3. Methodology
The present scoping review followed the framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) which includes the following five steps: formulating the review research question, searching the literature, selecting and screening the collected studies, classifying and presenting the data, and summarizing and presenting the results.
The inclusion criteria used in the present study were as follows:
  • Studies written in English
  • Studies published in authoritative journals
  • Studies published in the form of articles
  • Studies dealing with the concept and models of research literacy
  • Studies conducted in education and social sciences
  • Studies published between 2000 to 2022
The exclusion criteria of the present study were as follows:
  • Studies published in languages other than English
  • The grey literature studies
  • Studies published in disciplines other than education and social studies
Initially 334 studies were identified which were then reduced to 44 after the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied through reading the title, abstracts and the relevant section of each paper.

4. Results
The results show that the proposed models of research literacy are based on teachers’ role in research. Their roles are classified as: (a) critical understanding of research reports; (b) the ability to engage in classroom research; (c) applying the research results to teaching practice.
With regard to the proposed models of research literacy, the results show that each proposed model include components which are more in line with the aims and underlying principles of teacher education in the country where the model was introduced. For example, in countries where critical understanding of research reports and their use in developing more effective teaching procedures is emphasised, teachers are expected to be able to identify the implication of the studies they have read and understood and to apply them to the relevant aspects of their teaching practice and to be able to collect research evidence helping them to deal with teaching and learning issues. On the other hand, in countries where teachers are trained to be involved actively in classroom research, they are expected to contribute the educational knowledge development and to be ready to be engaged in evidence-based practice. As it is evident the componenets of research literacy differs in each of these cases, although in both of them the knowledge and skills necessary to be consumer of research is shared.
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Article Type: مقالات مروری تحلیلی | Subject: language teaching
Published: 2024/12/30

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