Volume 13, Issue 4 (2022)                   LRR 2022, 13(4): 499-529 | Back to browse issues page


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Shahbazi Gharloghi ر, Aref M, Mokhtabad Amrei S M. The Mechanism of Absence as a Language Game of Imagination in the Screenplay “About Eli” by Asghar Farhadi Based on Wittgenstein's Views. LRR 2022; 13 (4) :499-529
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-61140-en.html
1- Ph.D Candidate in philosophy of art, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2- Associate Professor of Drama Department, School of Art and Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran , m.aref@iauctb.ac.ir
3- Professor of Art School, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (703 Views)
The Later Ludwig Wittgenstein believes that language games cause the formation of meaning. He considers language to have a logic that is perfected in its original grammar. But situational contradictions create conditions in which another conception of the same situation can be reached. An image that crystallizes in a new language game and can be called imagination. Thus, this notion can be transformed from a mental thing to a Lingual one. One of the contexts in which these language games can be followed by example is the field of dramatic texts. Hence, because Wittgenstein describes the nature of research in description and opposes analysis and explanation, he claims that the philosophy of language has done its job by describing language games, with the aim of how imagination is formed in language. Asghar Farhadi's About Eli has been selected for research. How does Farhadi organize his language game to achieve this goal? He seems to have used the absence element for this language game. This research, which is based on a qualitative method and on the collection of library information from the perspective of applied purpose, has reached the conclusion that absence causes the formation of contradictory and shaky language situations and helps different language procedures in dealing with Form each other.

1. Introduction
The philosophical idea of “language games” by Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein alongside with linguist, Ferdinand de Saussure, has brought about major changes in theories of language studies. This philosopher developed philosophical research in an attempt not to describe than‌ to explain, but to focus on functional elements. In this regard, he replaced meaning not only with a picture that he considers mind word‌ but the function of the ‌language.
A screenplay text by Asghar Farhadi has been purposefully selected ‌for this study in this regard to address the issue in the field of philosophy of art. Farhadi is known as an international filmmaker whose art works have been warmly welcomed by local and international viewers with any form of language game he chooses. About Elly (2008) has been chosen. This film has dramatically created a situation in which language game‌ expansion is feasible. This study aims at determining the role that language game plays in developing dramatic language in such plays.
The question is how Farhadi has turned the element of imagination into language factor and expanded dramatic language in his ‌narratives.

2. Literature Review
The late Wittgenstein believes that the meaning of language forms ‌in its function. Human is involved in language‌ games in everyday language. The games‌ which we learn how to play while playing ‌and apply ‌unconsciously. These games are subject to‌ rules that are considered ‌grammar. Grammars have primary and secondary forms. The primary grammars are the context for building initial sentences in‌ language games; on the other hand, secondary grammars influence the infrastructure of‌ language which is culturally shaped. He does not believe in the mind aspect and takes this view that whatever happens in the language life of people‌ has a prominent aspect, which has to be coordinated and accompanied by‌ language games. The mentality of people is regarded as an individual grammar that is inaccessible to the public and it will not be perceivable unless it takes the language aspect in one of the language game rules.
Imagination is no exception.
Throughout the history of philosophy, imagination has a mental nature that is in line with Wittgenstein's mental subject‌; thus, it can be available until a language structure is made‌. Therefore, it must be determined how the language game of imagination makes meaning in function‌. One of the factors is "‌absence" that can integrate imagination into language games. Absence has been repeatedly discussed. It occasionally has philosophical, linguistic, and artistic logic aspects. Thus, absence has aspects ‌that can face its function‌ with different daily issues‌. Absence comprises all of these ‌functions in the context of language.

3. Methodology
Wittgenstein has benefited from the descriptive method to provide his research and this study. According to‌ Wittgenstein, a researcher has to provide schemes based on which a machine operates, like drawing an engineering map, to know how the machine works‌; this refers to how to study language and find grammar in language‌. Hence, this study has considered how the language of imagination has been applied in Farhadi’s screenplay by reviewing Wittgenstein's literature‌ and providing study‌ samples of Farhadi’s texts. This study is based on a functional goal, collecting library information, qualitative method, and descriptive nature.

4. Discussion
About Elly by Asghar Farhadi is examined‌. Language‌ games are created in this screenplay, which is listed in following table‌.

Table 1
 The situation and language games of the movie about Eli (Source: Authors)
Situation
 A
Sepideh and Elly situation: Elly has a fiancé who is going to divorce her and Sepideh has suggested her to travel with her to North in order to introduce her to Ahmad. (This situation is in ‌preface.) Language game
P
Situation
B
Sepideh situation: Sepideh has started the absence play of preface‌. All the players in the game have believed her‌ story. Language game
~P
Situation
C
Elly situation: Elly has disappeared in ‌this situation. Everyone is looking for her and to know how she is. Language game
q
Situation
D
Alireza situation (Elly’s fiancé): Elly’s fiancé has entered the game and the story of situation is‌ obvious. Language game
r
Situation
E
Collective situation: Inverting the situation of A in a new language game Language game
~r

In these situations‌, agents involved in language games create contexts ‌for playing without any absent elements in order to present ‌an aspect of their language and make another factor for aspect‌ expansion. Dramatic‌ dialogues ‌are first ‌selected and‌ then analyzed individually. It is obvious that the writer of the screenplay ‌has chosen various ‌ways to apply absence in this‌ analysis. Factors such as deletion of a character’s ‌name, and physical deletion of a character to name a few, reach‌ to deep linguistic structure, ‌which transforms the function of ‌language.

5. Conclusion
“Absence”, if not considered as language reference, could create an imaginary situation in language games. Asghar Farhadi has tested these issues by considering different situations of language games in his screenplay of “About Elly”. His function has resulted in switching from absence to name and physical deletion and different situations. Consequently, what has been considered ‌mental is turned into something objective and linguistic. The created‌ situations are widely considered logical situations‌. It is not nonsense. However, on the other hand, the logical situations are turned into another procedure of language and are somehow transformed into an imaginative situation when are in conflict with previous and next situations. We can identify other aspects of language by using the expression “imagine” depending on the agent and the situation that has been created. Absence destabilizes the unconscious situation of language. This instability continuously leads to the creation of various kinds of language games; thus, the functional aspect of language develops. This note is a direct answer to the research question and proves the‌ hypothesis in this study. This issue could result in creating drama in conscious areas due to the fact that contradictory situations cause tension and challenges between them, which Farhadi has taken advantage of in the screenplay of “About Elly”. Eventually, it can be claimed that imagination is not just a mental matter. It also can have verbal characteristics provided that we can identify and express its proper language game. This is a way of expanding language. It is important that Wittgenstein does not seek for providing a specific shape or instruction for ‌language games. They might be family-related‌ but are more focused on how to play language‌ games in method than on providing or explaining a specific instruction‌. In this study, we tried to ‌heed more attention to absence ‌as one of these possibilities.
 
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Philosophy of language
Published: 2022/10/2

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