Volume 15, Issue 2 (2024)                   LRR 2024, 15(2): 435-463 | Back to browse issues page

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vasegh E, Beyraghdar R, Najafian A, Anushe M. Explanation of Deleted Internal Argument in Persian Verb Phrase Based on Dynamic Approach of Phase Theory. LRR 2024; 15 (2) :435-463
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-61375-en.html
1- Linguistics PhD, Department of linguistics and foreign languages, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Department of Linguistics and Foreign Languages, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran , raziehmahdibeyraghdar@pnu.ac.ir
3- Associate Professor of Linguistics, Department of Linguistics and Foreign Languages, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
4- Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1184 Views)
This paper trys to explain, based on the framework of the dynamic phase theory, how to eliminate the internal object of the verb in Persian. At first, in order to determine whether deleted internal argument in Persian verb phrase is the result of  argument ellipsis (AE) or verb stranding verb phrase ellipsis (VSVPE), we apply some common diagnostic criteria  in the previous studies such as verb movement out of verb phrase, verbal identity, deletion of prepositional phases as intrnal arguements, coordination structure, order of adverbs of state and objects and scrambling. Because of incapability of the mentioned diagnostic criteria in the previous literature, we resort to the dynamic approach of phase theory (Bošković: 2005, 2013, 2014). Based on this approach, we conclude that what is deleted in the verb phrase is either a phase or the complement of a phase. Accordingly, this approach can provide the readers up with a more comprehensive and economical explanation of the mentioned structure in Persian.

1. Introduction
The present essay, based on the framework of minimalist program and dynamic phase theory (Beshkovich, 2005, 2013 and 2014), is an attempt to explain the elimination of the internal argument in the structure of Persian simple sentences. Realizing the nature of the unpronounced subject as pro in various languages such as Italian (Chomsky, 1981; Rizzi, 1982) attracted the attention of some linguists, especially in the field of generative syntax, to identify the syntactic identity of these unpronounced objects. Consequently, there are two different approaches in the previous literature with regard to the nature of these objects. One of them believes in the existence of the pro in the place of such internal arguments, and the other believes in their deletion. Based on Karimi's (2016 ) idea, there is no pro in place of unpronounced internal arguments in the Persian intended structures. On the other hand, based on the second view; that is, deletion, we consider six major criteria common in different previous studies to determine the category of the deleted element. But based on these citeria, there is no consensus view in this regard. Some researchers believe in argument ellipsis (AE), while others believe in verb stranding VP-ellipsis (VSVPE) in the intended structures. Because of the duality and some cotradictions in the findings of these two views, resulted from the incapability of the mentioned diagnostic criteria in the previous literature, we resort to the dynamic approach of phase theory (Bošković, 2005, 2013, 2014).
Research Question(s)
  1. What is the process resulted in the deletion of the internal argument in Persian simple sentences?
  2. How can the dynamic phase approach provide us up with a comprehensive explanation of the process of deletion in the intended structures?

2. Methodology
This study, from the point of view of purpose and nature is theoretical and explanatory and from the point of view of method is documentary. Considering that one of the paradigms raised in generative syntax is that the data should be analyzed based on the intuition of the native speakers, in this research, the data were analyzed based on the intuitions of the authors. The process of deletion in Persian language has not been investigated based on the dynamic phase approach so far. On these account, one can argue that the present study has opened a new line of research in this field.
Chomsky’s (2000, 2001) definition of phasehood is understood as a rigid concept; that is, phasal status of a category does not depend on its syntactic context. Accordingly, CPs and VPs are always taken to be phases. This runs counter to the spirit of the Minimalist predecessor of phases; barriers (Chomsky, 1986). In the barriers system, whether a particular category is a barrier or not depends on its syntactic context. Consequently, sometimes CP is a barrier and sometimes it is not, depending on its syntactic context. In other words, while phases are defined rigidly, barriers are defined contextually.
Because of some inadequacies, a number of generative linguists have recently argued that phasehood should also be defined contextually. One of them is Bošković (2005, 2013, 2014). He argues for a particular contextual approach whereby the highest projection in the extended projection of a major (i.e., lexical) category functions as a phase. This approach is flexible as the amount of structure (including the highest phrase) projected by major categories can differ not only in different lanuages but also within a single language.

3. Results
Applying six criteria common in previous studies, we try to investigate the deletion process of unpronounced internal argument in Persian simple sentences. The findings indicate that these critera cannot attain a unanioumous explanation with regard to the syntactic process involved in the intended structures.
As a result, we resort to the dynamic phase approach  (Beshkovich, 2005, 2013, 2014). The findings of this research indicates that what is deleted in the intended structures is neither the result of argument ellipsis (AE) nor verb stranding VP-ellipsis (VSVPE). Rather, the deleted constituent is a phase or the complement of a phase.
Accordingly, this study provides the readers up with a comprehensive, and consequently an econemical analysis instead of the contradictory findings of previous studies, considering the intended stuctures as a result of either argument ellipsis (AE) or Verb stranding VP-ellipsis (VSVPE).
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Linguistics
Published: 2024/12/30

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