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Badamdari Z, Alizadeh A, Eghbali E, Vahidi ferdowsi T. The Use of Image Schema in Teaching Prepositions, the Case Study of Preposition “Be” in Persian. LRR 2022; 13 (1) :597-628
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-12008-en.html
1- .A. in Linguistics, Teaching Persian to non-Persian speakers, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran , zahra.badamdari@gmail.com
2- Associate Professor of Linguistics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3- M.A. in Linguistics, Teaching Persian to non-Persian speakers, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
4- M.A. in Linguistics, Teaching Persian to non-Persian speakers, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Abstract:   (1328 Views)
Nowadays, Cognitive semantic approach plays an important role in learning second/foreign language. However, a few experimental investigations have applied a cognitive perspective to instructed L2 learning. The main purpose of the present research is comparing impact of cognitive approach to the traditional approach in learning some frequency concepts of the preposition "be" in Persian language. First, different meanings of preposition "be“ were selected from Farhang Sokhan Anvari (2002) and then some sentences and phrases containing this preposition were investigated according to the Farsi Biamoozim (2010) in the middle level. Prior to begging the instruction, 50 non-Persian learners (woman) were selected by proficiency test at Jamee-Almostafa of Mashhad center. This group were randomly divided into control and experimental groups and then, pre-test and post-test was applied between these groups. By using SPSS, comparison of the pre-test in control and experimental group revealed that there isn’t significant difference between prior knowledge of two groups before treatment, whereas the post-test showed that there is statistically significant difference between two groups. The results indicated that experimental group which was under the training of cognitive method showed significant gains than control group who received the traditional training methods.

1. Introduction
Persian Language learning is one of the most complex issues in teaching foreign languages. One of the most important issues in language is teaching and learning prepositions. Rote learning lacks comprehensive analysis of the different senses of prepositions.  Compared to other approaches, cognitive linguistics offers the aspects of meaningful learning (Song, 2013: 1). Cognitive approach to language and grammar is shown a systematic form.  Accordingly, in this paper, we are going to examine the impact of traditional approach compared to cognitive approach in learning different concepts of the prepositions "Be" for non-Persian speakers. So :
  1.  According to Toylor and Evans creteria (2003) what's Prototype meaing of preposition "be"?
  2. According to Langackers' theory of domains (1987), how we can teach abstract meanings of preposition "be"?
  3. What’s different between groups (control and expremental groups) in improvement after teaching preposition "be"?

2. Literature Review
 The present study is concerned with a Cognitive Linguistics meaningful approach to teaching prepositions. This study attempted to examine the impact of cognitive approach compared to traditional approach in learning different concepts of the preposition"Be".

2.1. Theorival researchs
In the interaction between human beings and their environment, human experience is imposed on a structure in terms of natural dimensions of the kind. In some studies (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Toyler & Evans, 2003; Langacker, 1987) there are theoretical definitions to explain Cognitive Linguistics and its impacts in teaching language and prepositions.

2.2. Experimetal researches
 Other researches (Song, 2013; Tyler, Mueller & Ho, 2011; Golfam & Yoosefi Rad, 2010;Vahidi, Badamdari 2016) investigated experimental method to teaching different prepositions by Cognitive Linguistics approach. Their findings shows applying cognitive method had significantly improvement in teaching different concepts of the prepositions.

3. Methodology
In this paper, first of all, based on Tyler and Evans' prototype criteria (2003), we have determined the prototype and different meanings of the spatial and prototype meanings of preposition "Be" according to Farhang Sokkan (Anvari, 2002). Finally, sentences and phrases including these prepositions were chosen according to Farsi Biamoozim (2010) in the intermediate level. Data collection, took place among 50 non-Persian learners at Jame-e-Almostafa of Mashhad.  Sample groups were selected randomly, then they were divided into control and experimental groups. Data analysis were estimated by spss (Independent T-Test) in control and experimental groups.

4. Results
The results of the study will enrich our understanding of reconceptualization and learning by a cognitive approach. In this study, we taught the spatial as well as other senses of this prepositions:

Table 1
Table1. Independent t-test in the pre-test of the control group with the experimental group
گروه mean Standard deviatin Levene's test t-test
 F value meaningfulness T value degree Meaningfulness
control 58/18 06/2 459/1 249/0 208/0- 24 799/0
exprimetal 85/18 13/3

According to table 1, data analysis in Independent T-Test (comparison of pre-tests in control and experimental groups) displayed that there isn’t significantly improvement between prior knowledge of learners before teaching.

Table 2
Table2. Independent t-test in post-test of the control group with the experimental group
group mean Standard deviatin Levene's test t-test
F value meaningfulness T value degree Meaningfulness
control 08/19 92/1 129/1 299/0 848/0- 24 000/0
exprimetal 64/24 76/2

According to table 2, data analysis in Independent T-Test and comparison of post-tests showed there is significantly more improvement between experimental groups compared to control groups.
Figure 1

  1.  Discussion
The results indicated that compared to traditional approach, applying cognitive method had significantly improvement in teaching different concepts of the preposition.
  1.  Conclusion
The present study was concerned with a cognitive approach to provide an instructional methods for Non-Persian speakers to learn prepositions “Be”. The results of the study will enrich our understanding of reconceptualization and learning by a cognitive approach. In this study, we taught the spatial as well as other senses of this prepositions. Data analysis in Independent T-Test (comparison of pre-tests in control and experimental groups) displayed there isn’t significantly improvement between prior knowledge of learners before teaching, whereas comparison of post-tests showed there is significantly more improvement between experimental groups compared to control groups. The results indicated that compared to traditional approach, applying cognitive method had significantly improvement in teaching different concepts of the preposition. The findings open up an effective perspective strategies in teaching prepositions for language teachers.
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Article Type: Research Paper | Subject: Arts and Humanities (General)
Published: 2018/03/2

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