Volume 13, Issue 1 (2022)                   LRR 2022, 13(1): 525-555 | Back to browse issues page

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Marzi R, Ahmadkhani M R, Kord Zafaranlu Kambuziya A. A study of Address Terms in Khoy Variety of Azeri Turkish. LRR 2022; 13 (1) :525-555
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-39268-en.html
1- Ph.D. Candidate in Linguistics, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch, Tehran, Iran
2- Associate Professor of Linguistics., Payame- Noor University, Tehran, Iran , ahmadkhani@pnu.ac.ir
3- Associate Professor of Linguistics., Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1104 Views)
To know how people begin their conversation and address each other is important in studying and making social relations. The aim of this research is to analyze sociolinguistic phenomenon called address terms by focusing three objectives: finding types, functions and social factors of address terms used in spoken form of Khoy variety of Azeri Turkish. The method of this study is content analysis and the data which are collected by field study using questionnaires from 225 Khoy native speakers show that there are eight types of address forms in Khoy variety of Azeri Turkish: first names, last name, titles, family relationship terms, pet names, religious terms, terms of profession and reversed terms. Data analysis show that in this language address terms in different conditions and situations express intimacy, power distance and respect from the maximum to the minimum which means that among these language society intimacy gas high priority in using address terms. Also data analysis showed that age, family relation, social ranking and job hierarchy and education affect on choosing address terms showing that in the culture of this traditional language society age and family relation more than other factors are responsible for social, cultural and class distances.  Also, according to the data first name is most frequent address term in Khoy variety of Azeri Turkish. Religious terms have the most frequency among strangers which shows that religious affairs are important for Khoy people. Distinctive characteristics of this research regarding other researches is that beside studying address terms, social and functional factors having role in choosing address terms are analyzed.

1. Introduction
Understanding the culture, ideology, ethnic beliefs, social relations, etc., needs understanding the society and the verbal interaction among the individuals. One of the most important aspects of the social relations is to know how to start up a conversation and use the means of addressing the other. The current study, accordingly, aims to investigate the addressing phrases used in interactions in order to extract their types, functions, and social aspects. The corpus used in this study consists of 1474 addressing phrases in Azeri Turkish used in Khoy, which was collected through a spoken questionnaire from 225 speakers. The research questions are: 1) what are the type of addressing phrases in Azeri Turkish in the spoken language of Khoy? 2) What are the structural and functional features of these phrases? 3) What social aspects do play role in selecting the phrases by the Khoy speakers? The hypothesis indicates that the traditional, religious, and cultural beliefs as well as the social aspects of the Khoy speakers affect the selection of these addressing phrases. The research method employed in this study is content analysis based on the theoretically-related perspective through the descriptive, explanatory, and exploratory levels of analysis.

2. Conclusion
The aim of this study was to understand the addressing phrases used in the Turkish community of Khoy considering the factors that distinguish them from other addressing phrases. The findings showed that the addressing phrases in the spoken language of Khoy people is influenced by the individual's relations, context, and social variables of gender, age, education, occupation, behavioral type and other related factors. Analyzing the structure, function, and social aspects of the addressing phrases used among the Azeri Turkish speakers of Khoy suggested that there are eight categories of addressing phrases: first name, surname, title, family relations, nickname, religious names, occupational names, and reversal names. The frequency of each category depends on the social and cultural status, gender, social class, age, family relation, occupational status, and functional factors. The content analysis indicated that except for the strangers, the first name is the least signifying addressing phrase. Therefore, it can be implied that the Azeri Turkish used in the spoken language of Khoy is mostly first name dependent, as it is the case in Farsi language.
This study also analyses the social factors of using each of the addressing phrases. The findings of the study not only can set a platform for other research projects in Turkish language and comparative studies among other languages, but also could be used in teaching Azeri Turkish as a second language for the teachers of the ministry of education who are working on Farsi, English, and Turkish at the same time.
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Sociology of language
Published: 2022/03/21

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