Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)                   LRR 2021, 12(2): 121-152 | Back to browse issues page


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Heidarpour Najafabadi N. “Tamiz” in Persian Grammar; Its Form, Nature and Terminology. LRR 2021; 12 (2) :121-152
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-42383-en.html
Assistant Professor, Lexicography Group, Academy of Persian Language and Literature, Tehran, Iran , nheidarpour@apll.ir
Abstract:   (12841 Views)
“Tamiz” is a term getting used in Arabic and Persian syntax. The term in old Persian grammars was equivalent with its meaning in Arabic, but over time was getting used for object complement, mean a grammatical function which make verbs like “danestan” (to know), “namidan” (to name), “pendashtan” (to assume) etc. clear objectively. Today “tamiz” means the same grammatically in Persian. This paper means two, first to determine when the word, tamiz formed and by who? And what are equivalents of that? Second to describe tamiz and its related verb and object. In order to attain the first, the author  investigated Persian grammars (in a historical order), and to attain the second  the author used a corpus-based investigation. Some of the results are as such: Tamiz often appears in the format of noun phrase and in second place in the format of adjective phrase and prepositional phrase. It rarely appears in the format of pronoun and clause. Almost all, tamizs have direct object and a few have prepositional object. Object is a necessary component of a sentence; so these verbs in passive form lose their tamiz except verbs like “yad shodan” (be reminded), “gofte shodan” (be said) and “etlagh shodan” (be predicated) which keep their object in passive form too.
 
1. Introduction
Tamiz or object complement is a syntactic function that clears the ambiguity of verbs like “danestan” (to know), “namidan” (to name), “pendashtan” (to assume) etc., in other words it introduces and describes the object. In Arabic syntax, tamiz is an indefinite noun that removes the ambiguity of “zat” (instance) and “nesbat” (relation). In old Persian grammars, this term has been equivalent with its meaning in Arabic syntax, but in new Persian texts, it is defined as object complement.
We are going to investigate properties of this grammatical function comprehensively and study its concept and terminology. Also we have no pretension to apply a particular liguistic theory, but we sometimes use the theory of valency in dependency grammar, because only some verbs need tamiz or object complement in their valenies.
There are these questions in the study: when the word, tamiz formed and by who? And what are equivalents of that? which is the most common word category of tamiz? Two hypotheses are related to those questions: the term of tamiz - in the meaning of object complement - is almost new in Persian grammar, and tamiz often appears in the format of noun phrase.
It can be said that the paper has two sections according to its purposes and questions. The first section is terminology of tamiz and the second one is analysing the data. In fact, the literature review shows the history of tamiz term. The data divides into two parts too; statistical reports and grammatical analyzings.
 
2. Literature Review
Tamiz in the meaning of object complement that has been studied in the article, is nearly a new concept. Perhaps Dr. Khayyampoor (1966) paid attention to the concept and used the object complement for the first time. Then Dr. Shariat (1994) used tamiz instead of object complement. After that, the topic of tamiz appeared in Persian grammars with a concise explanation and a few examples. Some grammarians have used the term of tamiz (e.g., Arzhang, 1996; Tabibzadeh, 2007, 2012; Anvari & Ahmadi Givi, 2012), some others have used terms like predicative complement of object (Meshkat al-Dini, 2014), predicate (Vahidian Kamyar & Emrani, 2005) or compelement (Farshidvard, 2005). Moreover, four independent articles have been written about tamiz in great detail. (Rasekh Mahand, 2005; Sayyadi & Monsefi, 2009; Tabibzadeh, 2010; Pashabadi et al., 2015).
 
3. Innovation
In this article, the terminology of tamiz has been discussed, and Persian grammars has been invesyigated histotically for this aim. The studies state that Dr. Khayyampoor paid attention to the concept of the object complement for the first time, and Dr. Shariat used the term of tamiz for this concept, then the other researchers followed him. The term is familiar and common in linguistic writings nowadays.
The present study is the first corpus-based research about tamiz that has been studied 701sentences in it. This paper presents exact number of word categoies of tamiz and states grammatical information about its different forms. At last, we have illustrated that there is not tamiz or object complement in the form of passive verbs.
 
4. Methodology
For the first aim, terminology of tamiz, we studied Persian grammars according to a historiacal order. For the second purpose, analyzing the function of tamiz, we applied Persian Dependency corpus by the advance research section on Dadegan website (search.dadegan.ir/advance/). Everyone can search grammatical functions and word categories by this tool. The data was input to the Excel software, and linguistic information was classified by that. We have sometimes needed to know the valency of verbs to define tamiz, in these situations we have used valency dictionary. The dictionary has produced by Peykaregan Center, and it is available on this website: https: //peykaregan.ir.
 
5. Results
Tamiz is a common term in Arabic syntax, and the term with the same meaning has been stated in older Persian grammars, but the new concept of tamiz (object complement) had been neglected until this century. Perhaps for the first time, Dr. khayyampoor paid attention to the concept. Dr. Shariat prefered to call object complement tamiz, and then tamiz became common in perian texts. Linguists apply both of the terms, but professors and students of literature often use tamiz.
Among Persian verbs, that which was getting used with tamiz more is “danestan” (to know), and in the second place verbs like “didan” (to see),“namidan” (to name), “shomordan” (to suppose) and “goftan” (to say) more than the others. Most of these verbs appear in different valencies, but some have just a unique structure which is ; verbs like “name” and “suppose” are so.
Tamiz often appears in the format of noun phrase and in second place in the format of adjective phrase and prepositional phrase. It rarely appears in the format of pronoun and clause. Almost all tamizs have direct object (with “ra”: the grammatical marker of object), and a few have prepositional object. The object precedes the tamiz but tamiz is rarely followed by object, because of discourse reasons. Object is a necessary component of a sentence; so these verbs in passive form lose their tamiz but it has predicate except verbs like “yad shodan” (be reminded), “gofte shodan” (be said) and “etlagh shodan” (be predicated) which keep their object in passive form too, and the same object is named tamiz.
Table 1: The frequency of verbs and grammatical categories related to Tamiz
  verbs the number of sentences the number of tamizs in the noun phrase form the number of tamizs in the adjective phrase form the number of tamizs in the prepositional phrase form the number of tamizs in the clause form
  avaz dadan 1 1      
  ehtesab kardan 2 2      
  erade kardan 1       1
  arzyabi kardan 1 1      
  etlagh shodan 1       1
  elam kardan 2 1 1    
  engashtan 9 4 4 1  
  bazshomordan 1 1      
  bazshenasi kardan 1     1  
  bang kardan 1 1      
  baravord kardan 2 1   1  
  barshomordan 3 2   1  
  bargozidan 2     2  
  be hasab avardan 1   1    
  be (dar) shomar avardan 10 7 1 2  
  pendashtan 12 4 8    
  tashkhis dadan 1   1    
  tasavvor kardan 5 3   2  
  tabir kardan 5 2   3  
  tarif kardan 1 1      
  talaffoz kardan 3 2 1    
  talaghghi kardan 15 6 5 4  
  talaghghi nemoodan 1     1  
  tosif kardan 3 3      
  ja andakhtan 1 1      
  ja zadan 8 5 2 1  
  jelve dadan 2 2      
  hesab kardan 3 2 1    
  khetab kardan 11 6 4   1
  khandan 13 8 6    
  dashtan 11   11    
  danestan 127 63 56 16 2
  dar nazar avardan 1 1      
  dar nazar gereftan 4 3 1    
  didan 28 9 19 2  
  zekr kardan 1 1      
  shomordan/shomardan 18 3 13 2  
  shenakhtan 3   1 3  
  seda zadan 1 1      
  onvan dashtan 1 1      
  onvan kardan 1 1      
  farz kardan 5 4 1    
  fahmidan 1 1      
  ghalamdad kardan 12 7 6    
  gereftan 12 2 10    
  goftan 16 13 2 1  
  gofte shodan 7 3 3 1  
  lehaz kardan 1 1      
  laghab dadan 7 7      
  laghab gereftan 7 5 2    
  laghab nahadan 6 5 1 1  
  mahsoob dashtan 5 3 1 1  
  mahsoob kardan 7 5 1 1  
  moarrefi kardan 10 5 2 4  
  mani kardan 2 1     1
  nam bordan 5     5  
  nam gozashtan/gozardan 7 8      
  nam nahadan 8 7   1  
  namgozari kardan 7 3   4  
  namidan 19 25      
  neshan dadan 5 2 3    
  negah kardan 1     1  
  negaristan 4     4  
  nemayandan 4 1 2   1
  vanemood kardan 1 1      
  vasf kardan 2 1   1  
  yad shodan 1 1      
  yad kardan 5     5  
  yaftan 10   10    
sum 69 495 260 180 72 7
 

 
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Farsi language
Published: 2021/04/27

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