Volume 13, Issue 1 (2022)                   LRR 2022, 13(1): 29-64 | Back to browse issues page


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Sadeghpour R, Safa P, Gashmardi M R. The Effectiveness of the Educational Supervision Model of French Classes in Iranian Language Schools Using the Situated Action Theory. LRR 2022; 13 (1) :29-64
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-44461-en.html
1- Candidate in French Language Teaching, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2- Associate Professor of French Language Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3- Associate Professor of French Language Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran , m.gashmardi@modares.ac.ir
Abstract:   (2559 Views)
Many of the existing problems of teachers arise from the lack of a written supervision program, and the implementation of educational supervision in principle can not only be effective in solving the problems of teachers, but also increase their motivation.
Therefore, having an educational observation model can be effective in optimizing the performance of educational consultants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the educational supervision model in French language classes in Iran using the situated action theory.
This study was performed by quasi-experimental pretest-posttest single-group method.The statistical population included all educational consultants, 7 of whom were selected by convenience sampling. The dependent variable (monitoring quality) was measured before and after the implementation of the independent variable (monitoring optimization model).
Comparing the mean score of supervision quality in the group of counselors before and after the educational intervention and according to the results of the study, the mean score and standard deviation before the intervention (19.07 11 111.42) and after the intervention (22.13 15 155.85) was obtained Based on the paired t-test, according to the level of significance obtained, a statistically significant difference was observed between the mean scores before and after the intervention. Therefore, training of educational consultants based on the proposed supervisory model was effective at a significant level (p <0.05).
According to the research findings, it can be concluded that, by using the designed model of educational supervision, educational consultants can be trained with effective quality of performance, because the principles of educational supervision can be learned and this in turn   leads to success in the teaching-learning process.


1. Introduction
Educational supervision has an essential role in the quality of teaching and optimizing the performance of teachers. Many of the problems that teachers face are due to the lack of a written supervision program. The task of educational counselors is to train and accompany teachers in acquiring the skills they need in teaching and coping with different classroom situations. Training counselors seldom engage in in-depth thinking and provide feedback and solutions that are primarily prescriptive. In addition, the beginner teacher-counselor relationship is associated with a kind of dishonesty during post-supervision interviews, and educational counselors resort to covert methods to avoid tension with teachers and to improve the relationship.
Due to the lack of quality training courses, training consultants are more inclined to supervise as they teach. For this reason, the lack of expertise has made the practice of educational counseling a simple and aimless oversight. Implementing educational supervision in a principled way can not only be effective in solving teachers' problems, but also increase their motivation. In Iran, educational counselors generally work as educational counselors in educational centers without having to participate in a special training course, and this lack of expertise causes problems such as low productivity, pessimism, frustration and teachers’ lack of motivation. Because not every good teacher necessarily becomes a good educational consultant (Sadidi et al., 1398).
The application of some educational monitoring models based on observation method can examine in-depth practical dimensions and observable actions such as gesture, movement in space, etc., and on the other hand investigates the living dimensions of action, perceptions, feelings, concerns and Pay attention to the action; It can help to optimize the quality of the educational consultants' supervisory performance. The "situated action theory" is based on two factors; observation method "within the living organization" and interview, simulation and relative experience techniques.  For these two reasons, the efficiency of the educational supervision is to be materialized through these two ways: Encouraging the teacher to reconsider his or her action in the classroom and interpreting his or her action. This theory seeks to return the actor to the situation. Here the actor is asked to explain his action. This clarification is done via his cognitive and social re-visualization with the aid of the characteristics of the situation.
This theory seeks to return the actor to the situation in which the action was performed and to re-visualize him socially and cognitively, using the characteristics of the situation, to lead the actor to explain his action. This theory studies the cognitive dimensions of human activities, because we are dealing with role-makers who are in the role of teachers, educational supervisors, language learners, etc., for whom the skill of adaptation, which is specific to any living thing, is of special importance. Therefore, in the case of teachers and educational supervisors who are the actors of this study, it is necessary to study their human activities and their experience in interacting with the environment and the meaning of their actions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the model of educational supervision of French classrooms in Iranian language schools, using the theory of situational action.
Research Question(s)
This study seeks to answer this question:
  Is the model of educational supervision effective on the quality of supervision of counselors in French language classes in Iranian schools?

2. Literature Review
No research has been done on the background of the research in the general study, at the school level and in the field of French language, on issues related to the status of supervision and supervisory models in Iran, and this article is the first research in this regard.
  However, in the field of English in the same field, at the level of education and high school, academic research, dissertations and articles have been presented and published. Numerous articles and researches in this field have been presented in foreign countries, some examples of which are mentioned below.
Bullunz et al. (2014) implemented a clinical supervision model to train Turkish teachers in their research and evaluated its effectiveness. They used experimental and control groups to compare the performance of teacher trainee training and used t-test and analysis of variance to compare scores.
The results showed significantly higher scores in the experimental group compared to the control group, however, the results of repeated measures analysis (ANOVA) did not show a significant difference in increasing scores for both groups, which was probably due to the limited time to implement the clinical monitoring model.
In another study, Rashidi and Forutan (2015) in examining the status of monitoring the performance of English language teachers in the Iranian education system, stated;
 Most English language teachers rated their supervisors' professional skills as effective in areas such as assessment, classroom management, educational activities, student behavior, and teaching techniques and these teachers wanted more support from educational supervisors in the areas of preparing and editing educational materials, developing teachers' experience, and teaching guidance. The supervisory model applied in high school is traditional models, especially the prescriptive model, and the supervisory model of supervisors in university teacher training centers is followed by a model of self-thinking or thinking. The vast majority of regulatory model volunteers prefer self-reflection to traditional models, and educational supervisors consider themselves skilled and specialized in most areas.
Sobhaninejad and Aghahsseini (2006) found in their research that there is a significant difference between the current monitoring situation and the desired and optimal situation. The results of Hismanoglu (2010) research show that, the most important part of monitoring education is motivating and encouraging teachers to overcome their weaknesses. After examining the current situation, his research had two main conclusions: 1: there is a clear difference between teachers 'beliefs about educational supervision and their experiences, and 2: there is a significant difference between teachers' expectations of supervision and the perception of educational supervisors.
Sadeghi et al. (2015) have shown that the current state of educational supervision is almost acceptable, but teachers expect to receive more qualified services in supervision and they need more support in the field of educational supervision and counseling. When teachers associate the supervision of educational supervisors with evaluation, they become distrustful (Bushama et al., 2016).
Jecker-Parvex (2020) in his research examined the role of educational counselor and defined educational supervision as an educational and practical method that aims to develop teacher skills, acquire self-assessment skills and analyze interaction situations, challenges such as interventions and Professional issues, especially in terms of responsibilities, contradictions and problems, effects and emotions, and obstacles and performance of their profession.
According to the researches mentioned in the previous articles, various studies have been conducted in the field of education in the field of supervision models, and there are still no results that indicate the use of a comprehensive model that includes all aspects and the present study is one of the first studies to investigate the effectiveness of a supervisory model in French classrooms in Iranian language schools using the theory of situational action.

3. Methodology
                                                This study was performed by quasi-experimental method of pre-test-post-group test. The statistical population included all educational consultants and 7 of them were selected by convenience sampling. The dependent variable (monitoring quality) was measured before and after the implementation of the independent variable (monitoring optimization model). In this research, the educational supervision model of French language classes, which is designed by Sadeghpour (2020) based on the theory of position-based action with a mixed quantitative-qualitative exploratory approach; was used.
To determine the effectiveness of Sadeghpour (2020) educational supervision model, an educational plan was designed and the quasi-experimental research design method was used. The dependent variable (monitoring quality) was measured before and after the implementation of the independent variable (monitoring optimization model) and based on the educational supervision model, a 42-item researcher-made educational supervision checklist was designed to determine the effectiveness of using the optimized educational supervision model, which included items with 5-point Likert scale (very low, low, medium, high, very high) and sought to answer the question of whether the model of educational supervision of French classrooms in Iranian schools using the theory of position-based, on the quality of supervision of counselors , Is it effective? To perform the pre-test, to view and complete the checklist, the performance of each educational counselor before the training course was filmed and reviewed and the monitoring table was completed by the researcher. Then, the educational intervention was carried out by forming a "group workshop" and "individual accompaniment" and to run the post-test again, including the previously mentioned steps; (Monitoring, filming, etc.) was done and the checklist of the monitoring table was completed again and finally the results were compared with each other.
4. Results
Comparing the mean score of quality of supervision in the group of counselors, before and after the educational intervention, the mean score and standard deviation were obtained before the intervention (19.07 ± 111.42) and after the intervention (22.13 ± 155.85) and based on the paired t-test, according to the obtained level of significance, a statistically significant difference was observed between the mean scores before and after the intervention. Therefore, training of educational consultants based on the proposed supervisory model was effective at a significant level (p <0.05). Table 1, shows the mean and standard deviation of pre-test and post-test scores, and Table 2, shows the significance of the mean of pre-test and post-test scores.

Table 1
Paired t-test: Mean and standard deviation of pre-test and post-test scores
Mean N Std. Deviation Mean  Deviation
Pre-test 111.4286 7 19.07754 7.21063
Post-test 155.8571 7 22.13165 8.36497


Table 2
 Significance of mean pre-test and post-test scores
Couple comparison T Df Sig
Mean Std. Deviation
Pre-test
Post-test
-44.42857 11.2673 -10.433 6 000.0

5. Discussion
The results of the study showed that the model of educational supervision of French classrooms in Iranian schools is effective on the quality of supervision of counselors by using the theory of position-based action and there was a significant difference between the means before and after the training. This means that the proposed training course has been useful in optimizing the educational supervision situation, and the current shortcomings of the educational supervision situation can be partially eliminated. Thus, effective teaching supervision and counseling leads to the development of innovation, positive motivation and initiative in teachers.
The training counselor should be able to know the knowledge and skills, attitudes, needs, expectations of the instructor and also be aware of the expectations of the training center and the effectiveness of the instructor.
The training course should also be an opportunity for training counselors to develop their counseling and leadership skills; to be able to act more effectively during class situations and during post-visit interviews. The training course should also be an opportunity for training counselors to develop their counseling and leadership skills; to be able to act more effectively during class situations and during post-visit interviews. They need to understand the needs of educators and, through practical and theoretical integration, guide them to find solutions to their problems (Chaliès et al., 2009, p. 106).
If the educational supervision is done properly, it will lead to the quality of the teacher's performance and ultimately improve the quality of the educational situation.
Therefore, it is necessary for educational institutions to emphasize this type of supervision and use and teach effective and appropriate models of educational supervision to educational consultants.

6. Conclusion
According to the research findings, it can be concluded that, by using the designed model of educational supervision, we can train educational consultants with effective quality of performance. Because the principles of educational supervision can be learned, and this, in turn, leads to success in the teaching-learning process. In this study, in terms of typology, to optimize the quality of supervision of educational consultants in Iran, the model obtained from a mixed quantitative-qualitative exploratory study by Sadeghpour in 2020 was used, Considering the effectiveness of this model, doing more research by combining related models can lead to more comprehensive regulatory models in this regard.

Acknowledgments
I would like to thank all those who helped me in this research.
Appendix
Checklist (monitoring table)
very much Much medium little very little Items Main categories Row
During the class visit, the educational counselor pays attention to the teacher's gesture (positioning, movement, tone of voice and speed of speech and movements in the classroom environment). Behavior
An educational counselor is available to address teacher problems, except during classroom supervision.
The educational counselor is aware of his / her role of accompanying the teacher.
The training consultant devotes sufficient time to supervision.
Before observing the class, the educational counselor informs the teacher of his / her supervisory criteria and the objectives of the class supervision.
When observing the class, the counselor uses appropriate tools such as an evaluation table or a camera to record the sessions.
During the interview after the visit, the educational counselor fully describes the teacher's problems.
Through observation sessions, the educational counselor controls the quality of the teaching-learning process and, in a way, evaluates what is observed in relation to the expected situation.
The educational counselor pays attention to the arrangement of the learners in the classroom situation, according to the educational goals of the teacher.
During the observation, the educational counselor pays attention to classroom management, board management, space management, time management, and interactions between learners-learners and learners-teachers.
It is important for the counselor that the teacher has an alternative lesson plan (Plan B).
It is important for the counselor that the instructor, before starting the class, perform classroom rituals such as (attending class before class, chatting, attending, and asking for dates and days, talking about the weather…).
The counselor cares about having the right interactions with the teacher. Ethics
Takes care of the teacher in expressing and analyzing the teaching problems in a timely manner.
Easily accepts other people's ideas.
In supervision, the educational counselor always adheres to the principle of confidentiality and treats the teacher with respect, humility and patience.
Based on his / her personal experiences in teaching and supervision, he / she makes suggestions to the teacher. Educational basics
After visiting the classroom, she usually transfers her knowledge and experiences to the teacher and asks her to adapt those experiences to her/his class by thinking.
After visiting the classroom, she/he encourages the teacher to think
In order to improve the quality of teaching, the educational counselor provides teaching aids and tools to the teacher.
Holds training courses to meet the needs of teachers.
During the visit, he / she monitors the teacher's skill level (teaching method) and educational cognition (learners' learning style).
Considers the use of learner assessment methods.
The educational counselor reviews the assessments made by the teacher.
Pays attention to the correct implementation of the educational regulations of the institute (class hours, number of absences, timely completion of educational content, etc).
The educational counselor causes stress and anxiety to the teacher.. Psychological factors
The educational consultant is involved in creating the teacher's creativity and innovation.
The educational counselor helps and motivates the teacher.
The training consultant plays the role of guide and team leader. Professional and organizational characteristics
The training consultant is an active listener during monitoring and observation.
The training counselor has sufficient expertise and skills to conduct class observations and post-visit sessions.
The gender of the educational counselor affects the quality of classroom supervision.
During the session, after visiting the teacher, she /he wants to explain the purpose of her actions. The meaning of action
During the interview, after the visit, she/he encourages the teacher to express the strengths and weaknesses of her behavior.
The educational counselor listens to the teacher's comments during the interview after the visit and then expresses his or her understanding in order to resolve the misunderstanding in front of him / her.
Encourages the teacher to find the right answer to the thought and, by challenging the teacher, teaches her/him the way of thinking.
The counselor acts independently in dealing with problems. Compatibility
Guides the teacher to find the right answer.
The consultant participates in training courses to update information and improve his / her performance in order to adapt to new needs
In the face of unforeseen situations, it changes its behavior and takes a position appropriate to the new situation.
The training counselor uses understandable words during the interview, not scientific and specialized words that make it difficult to understand. Verbal skills
The educational counselor is skilled in expressing his / her thoughts to the teacher and expresses his / her thoughts clearly and fluently.

 
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: language teaching
Published: 2021/09/2

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