Volume 15, Issue 2 (2024)                   LRR 2024, 15(2): 465-494 | Back to browse issues page


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Eftekhar Z, aghahoseini H, Algooneh . M. Analysis of the mystical language of Abhar‌- alasheghin on the subject of love based on the pattern of dynamic discourse. LRR 2024; 15 (2) :465-494
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-54550-en.html
1- PhD student, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran
2- Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran , h.aghahosaini@ltr.ui.ac.ir
3- Associate Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran
Abstract:   (2395 Views)
One of the characteristics of Rozbahan's mysticism, one of the mystics of the 6th century, is his special attention to the subject of love and the description of its stages. The description of these stages has led to the creation of a special mystical language in Abhar Alasheghin. Abhar Alasheghin which deals specifically with the subject of love, is the result of Rozbahan's mystical experiences and tells the story of the constant seeker. The experience of these continuous "becomings" takes on special characteristics when it flows in the context of language. The analysis of his characteristic mystical language in different stages of the seeker's transformation in the stages of love is possible by using the dynamic discourse model. This pattern shows that the mystical language of Abhar Alasheghin is not static and its foundation is on transformation. The purpose of this research is to clarify the dynamic path of the seeker's mystical experience in the way of love and in the context of language. Based on this, this research examines the "identity" and the path of "becoming" a seeker. By using the semantic square, part of the process of transformation in the word can be examined. This study reveals that the identity of the seeker is a mystic who has reached the point of annihilation of attributes, but satisfaction with human love and stopping in that veil is his path. The goal of the seeker's journey is to see the manifestation of divine beauty in the form of a human lover and to reach the annihilation of nature and monotheism. The effective verb "to want" appears when choosing between two ways of stopping or moving. The effective verb "to stand" is manifested in the determination of the God in putting love to the test. But it is possible for the seeker to reach the subject of "ability" and the essence of observation and connection to the grace and attraction of God, not the will of the seeker.

1. Introduction
One of the characteristics of Rozbahan’s mysticism, a sixth-century Sufi, is his special attention to the subject of love and the description of its stages. He narrates his mystical ascension at the beginning of Abhar al-Asheqin, one of the first texts of Sufi literature on the subject of love and the result of his mystical experiences. After traversing the world of servitude, he reaches the world of lordship and beholds the manifestation of beauty. Then he attains the station of love. Abhar al-Asheqin depicts the seeker’s constant transformation. The experience of these continuous transformations takes on special characteristics when it is expressed through language. Based on this, the purpose of this research is to explain Rozbahan’s mystical language and as a result, to pay attention to the fluidity of meaning in dynamic discourse. Therefore, this research will analyze and investigate Rozbahan’s mystical language in Abhar al-Asheqin by applying the dynamic discourse model. In this way, we will try to understand Rozbahan’s mystical journey from human love to divine love. The analysis of his characteristic mystical language in different stages of the seeker’s transformation in the stages of love is possible by using the model of dynamic discourse and its transformational process. This model reveals that Rozbahan’s mystical language in Abhar al-Asheqin is not descriptive and static, but dynamic and transformational. In dynamic discourse, due to the constant movement of all factors, change is one of the basic conditions. As a result, the meaning is subject to transformations that compel human factors to change from a deficient state to a new state where the deficiency is eliminated. The factors of this discourse, i.e. the lover who is the carrier of love and love itself, are both constantly dynamic and moving towards perfection.
Research Questions
This research tries to get an optimal answer to these questions:
A)   What are the characteristics of the questing lover and what is the final goal in the path of becoming in the mystical dynamic discourse of love in Abhar al-Asheqin?
B)    How is the transformation of human love to divine love possible?
C)    What is the role of effective verbs in dynamic discourse through which becoming happens for the seeker?
D)   How can the semantic square be used for the explanation of the evolutionary process of the discourse?

2. Review of Literature
A few articles have been written about the mystical language and the subject of love in Rozbahan’s works, as well as the semiotic-semantic approach. Some of the research is as follows. In an article entitled “Semiologic analysis of discourse patterns in the 9th and 10th Yasans of Avesta”, the characteristics of discourse in the 9th and 10th Yasans have been investigated. The constant change of pronouns has led to discourse integration and disintegration, which itself causes the production of meaning (Athari & Ahmadi, 2016). Despite the aforementioned research in the field of Rozbahan’s language and the semiotic-semantic approach of discourse, the attention to the mechanism of dynamic discourse in Abhar al-Asheqin has been neglected.

3. Methodology
The transformational process of discourse can be a suitable model for analyzing the developmental stages of love and the lover based on its linguistic properties. The word becoming expresses a permanent transformation, and identity refers to the existing state of the active agent. The existing situation or the process of the active agent’s being reveals his becoming or his desired situation. Transformation in the existing situation can also create a new identity for the active agent. Reaching is the means of movement, and telos is the final goal and the desired state of the active agent. Effective verbs show the path of action of the active agent in the emergence of this in the discourse and also in the stages of the evolutionary process of speech. Telos puts the subject in an open-ended movement system while reaching makes the movement system closed. There is a dynamic movement in the intention or the will of the agent, that is, a desire for change and transformation. Dynamic discourse, due to having two dimensions of identity, i.e. the existing situation or being and becoming which is related to a continuous transformation, can show the stages of progress in the level of language, from the existing initial state to the secondary state. The purpose of this research is to clarify the path of development and dynamics of the seeker’s mystical experience in the way of love and in the context of language. Based on this, this research will examine the identity and path of becoming of a seeker. The semantic square consists of two poles. According to the logic of this square, it is not possible to move from one opposite to another unless we first violate that opposite. By using the semantic square, a part of the process of transformation and dynamics in discourse can be examined.

4. Results
This study reveals that the identity of the seeker is a mystic who has reached the status of annihilation of attributes. After reaching this status, the seeker suffers the test of love due to his return from ascension. This affliction, as a stage of quest imposed on the seeker by God’s destiny and will, is inevitable for him. The effective verb "must" marks the beginning of this stage and ensures the dynamic process of discourse. The ultimate goal or telos is to reach monotheism; however, finding satisfaction and peace in human love would be the veil of his path. Therefore, stopping at any stage and being satisfied with any goal other than the supreme goal of observation, is equal to reaching a destination that places the seeker in a closed system and prevents him from becoming. Suffering from the test of love as a stage of the journey to divine destiny is inevitable. Passing through the hell of the soul is one of the laws of the journey, and the effective verb “must” marks the beginning of this stage and ensures the dynamic process of discourse. The identity of a seeker, who is put to the test of human love, is defined as a mystic who has reached the annihilation of attributes and has attained nearness to perfection. In the process of transformation of love, the lover’s attitude changes because he goes beyond the appearance of the human lover as a phenomenon and observes the inner and truth of this appearance and achieves the annihilation of love, the lover and the beloved all in the divine beloved. The identity of this seeker in such a position is the identity of a mystic who has reached the inherent annihilation and the status of nearness to Farayez. The effective verb of "wanting" appears in the test of love and at the time of choosing between two ways of stopping or being dynamic. The effective verb “must” is manifested in the inevitable destiny of God in placing the test of love on the path of the seeker, but it is possible for the seeker to reach the position of a competent agent and get to the point of observation and connection not by the will of the seeker but by the grace and attraction of God.
 
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Farsi language
Published: 2024/12/30

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