Volume 14, Issue 4 (2023)                   LRR 2023, 14(4): 271-302 | Back to browse issues page


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Yahyapour M, Karimi-Motahhar J, Tokarev G V. Hafez and the "Bashnya" Symbolists of Saint Petersburg: A Study of the Use of Symbols and Vocabulary. LRR 2023; 14 (4) :271-302
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-60769-en.html
1- Professor , myahya@ut.ac.ir
2- Professor
3- University professor
Abstract:   (2562 Views)
Symbolism is one of the prominent schools of Russian literature in the early twentieth century, in which some of its representatives composed outstanding works inspired by mysticism and teachings of the poets of the ancient land of Iran, including Hafez. Vichislav Ivanov and Mikhail Kuzmin, two representatives of this school, were active members of an association founded in 1905 by Ivanov in his apartment in Hafez's honor, named Hafez's Disciples. This clique, known as Bashnya (Dome), was considered the most important literary and philosophical center of its time. The members of the association were lovers of Hafez and Hafez's teachings in this place and became the source of inspiration for mystical poems. The purpose of the present study is to examine the linguistic and lexical units that Ivanov and Kuzmin have used in connection with the thoughts of Hafez and his mysticism in their poems. An attempt was made to answer these questions: How did the Russian symbolist poets understand Hafez's poems? Which linguistic elements of Hafez did they use to express their thoughts and what common linguistic units and vocabulary did they use? Examining the poems of Ivanov and Kuzmin in connection with the subject under discussion, we conclude that despite cultural and linguistic differences, they have combined Eastern and Western symbols in their poems and, like Hafez, they have used a combination of earthly and metaphysical vocabulary, symbols, contradictions, metaphors, polysemous words, and paradoxical concepts to express ontological thoughts. The vocabulary used in their poems, such as Hafez's poems, include the concepts of love, dialogue, call for unity between nations and religions, "other-praising", as well as an understanding of the beauty of the universe

Symbolism is one of the prominent schools of Russian literature of the early twentieth century, some of whose representatives were inspired by the mysticism and teachings of the poets of ancient Iran (Persia), including the custodian of works. The tendency of Russian writers and poets towards the culture of the Orient is evident in all eras. The feeling of spiritual emptiness, philosophical and mystical thoughts of Oriental poets, escaping from the political currents of their country, and traveling to the Orient can be considered as the main reasons. In the twentieth century, Vichislav Ivanov and Mikhail Kuzmin, two representatives of the school of symbolism, were active members of an association founded in 1905 by Ivanov in his apartment in Hafez's honor, named after Hafez's followers. This circle, known as Bashnia (Dome), was considered the most important literary and philosophical center of its time. The members of the association were lovers of Hafez and Hafez's teachings in this place and became the source of inspiration for mystical poems. The tendency of both poets to the Orient, and especially Hafez's lyric poems, is clearly seen in their poems.   Both poets were deeply acquainted with Eastern culture, especially ancient Iran, and the reason for choosing these two poems from the Symbolists is due to their lyric poetry and the influence of both poets in this style from Shiraz, the city of Iranian poetry and literature, Hafez and Sheikh Saadi. In addition, the language of both poets is like the language of Hafez, metaphorical, and contradiction is one of the features of their poems. The main feature of the school of symbolism is the use of symbols, ie the cultural units of language, which contain an idea and model of human behavior. Here we discuss the salient features of the texts of this literary and artistic  movement in the poems of Ivanov and Cosmin about Hafez, and the purpose of the present study is to examine the linguistic and lexical units that Ivanov and Cosmin relate to the thoughts of Hafez and his mysticism. They used their own poems. An attempt was made to answer these questions: How did the poets of the Russian school of symbolism understand Hafez's poems?  Which linguistic elements of Hafez did they use to express their thoughts and what common linguistic units and words did they use? Examining the poems of Ivanov ("Hafez's Tent", "Guides at Hafez's Feast", "Meeting the Guests", "Giving to Glyvar", "Al-Rumi, Al-Rumi") and Kozmin ("Persian Night", "To Hafez's Friends", "Looking at the dark cypress, shed tears, O former lover!", "Writing like a delicate flower ring on a gully," the two Russian Silver Age poets, we conclude that Kozmin's poems about Hafez reflect the use of traditional symbolism, the transfer of values from Iranian culture to Russian, and the actualization of cultural relativism. It is Hafez's ontology, and Ivanov, in his poems, enters into a dialogue with the Iranian poet Hafez, expands the poet's ideology, and uses his favorite linguistic methods.  In his poems, Ivanov blends Eastern and Western symbols, and like Hafez, with the help of mystical words, he places in his poems the call for unity between religions and nations as the headline of love and ontology. On the other hand, Hafez's metaphorical language is of interest to both of them, and despite cultural and linguistic differences, they have combined Eastern and Western symbols in their poems. They have used ambiguities and paradoxical concepts. The words used in their poems, such as Hafez's poems, include the concepts of love, dialogue, the call for unity between nations and religions, "other praise", as well as an understanding of the beauty of the cosmos
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Semantics
Published: 2023/10/2

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