Volume 14, Issue 6 (2024)                   LRR 2024, 14(6): 105-141 | Back to browse issues page


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Nasri M, Nosratzadeh H, Modarres Khiabani S. Linguistic Analysis of Translation Problems in Banking Texts: A Comparative Study from Structural Semantics in Linguistics and Equivalence in Translation Studies’ Viewpoints. LRR 2024; 14 (6) :105-141
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-61199-en.html
1- PhD candidate in Linguistics, English Language Department, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.
2- PhD, Assistant professor, English Language Department, Islamic Azad University, Damavand Branch, Damavand, Iran (corresponding author). , Nosratzadeh_14@yahoo.com
3- PhD, Assistant professor, English Language Teaching and Translation Department, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran.
Abstract:   (3869 Views)
This study tries to analyze the Persian translations of, banking texts, in documentary credit section of international banking by selecting five translated books and having a linguistic view. As semantics is one of the main principles studied in linguistics and on the other hand, transfer of the meaning is one of the main issues in translation studies, therefore, some equivalents in these texts were analyzed by a mixed linguistic and translation view with descriptive-analytic method based on library resources. Findings show that applying three approaches of, structural semantics, in linguistics including units of the same field, componential analysis, and sense (conceptual) relations, by specifying conceptual relationships as well as subtle componential differences among different units of the same field, lead to the appropriate and accurate equivalent selection (making)s related to different types of documentary credits (according to the different meaning components including contractual, documentary, guarantee and commercial nature), different insurance documents (according to the different meaning components including certificate, contractual, with no time and monetary limit and declaration nature), different charges (according to the different meaning components including percentage calculation, services or advices, all kinds of charges and imposed nature), different sendings (according to the different meaning components including electronic and non- electronic nature), different drawings and shipments (according to the different meaning components including with or without previously timetabled nature), as well as different receivings (according to the different meaning components including in courier place or sender place nature). In conclusion, these three approaches of, structural semantics, by helping the realization of meanings, lead to the accurate and correct selection (making) of equivalents and in some cases prevent the Persian language from the influence(s) of other languages in translations of these texts.
  1. Introduction
Banks, as one of the most important economic pillars which need relations and transactions in international sections, used the international banking rules and customs and practices as one of the ways for establishing such relations and transactions. Many translations (English-Persian) in international banking texts were made by those who were experts in banking and trade fields (without linguistic or translation concerns) and consequently, some failures were found in linguistics and translation studies’ sections of these translations. As "meaning" is one of the most important issues which is studied in linguistics and from other side, transfer of it, is the main concern of translation studies, so by use of structural semantics in linguistics and also equivalence in translation studies’ viewpoints, the Persian translations of the banking texts related to documentary credit in international banking were analyzed with a descriptive-analytic method based on library resources.
             
  1. Literature review
Kodirova (2021) in a paper entitled “The issue of problem translating English banking terms into Uzbek in linguistics” attempted to investigate the issues related to rendering banking terms in order to have a good translation as for banking texts, by recognizing their pragmatics, classifications and structures as well as their specific distinctive features. Based on his findings, lexical, morphological-syntactical differences of banking terms between English and Uzbek may cause a percent of mismatching of the English banking terms with Uzbek. Of course, it is noteworthy that in spite of their mismatch, no interference in semantic transfer of terms and their acceptable renderings into target language can be regarded a strong possibility of applied translation procedure. In another study, Ahmad Mukhtar Imam et al. (2020) in their paper entitled “Problems in translating economic terminology from English into Arabic and vice versa” tried to investigate problems in rendering economic terminology from English into Arabic and vice versa. In their paper, linguistic features of the texts, including technical terms, collocations, fixed terms, utilization of formal variety of language, collocational and metaphorical expressions in the discourse of commercial media were regarded vital to be investigated in order to scrutinize translators’ problems in lexical issues and their impact on rendering economic terms, selecting acceptable equivalents with same register and also common use of terms and collocations in the discourse of commercial media. Hariyanto (2019) delivered a lecture on “Problems and solutions of translating unique banking terms from English into Indonesian” (published by Atlantis Press) in which banking terms were classified into two groups (i.e., a category related to traditional services and another one to modern services). Hariyanto reckoned that the first step of rendering banking texts is to understand them and their applied terms. In line with the findings of him, the translators should not use synonyms as a proper translation method, because it may have some legal consequences. It is noteworthy that word for word translation is another translation method by which the translators try to find a counterpart when they cannot recognize target equivalents or synonyms for the source ones. As regards word for word translation, if any possibility of misunderstanding occurs, loan words can be used in the translation. Fathi-Alishah et al. (2019) in a paper entitled “English to Persian translation accuracy of rules and regulations of international banking system” undertook to scrutinize the accuracy of Persian translation of customs and practices of international banking system. According to their findings, the economic positive impact of utilizing a language as a medium for international relations in banking industry is indispensable. In addition, an improper understanding of banking documents may lead to a financial chaos in a country and its other authorized sections. Doherty (2016) and Zralka (2007) also declare that the translation of banking texts is of great importance and professional translators should know that these types of texts are different from other texts regarding their types and aims and because of these facts, professional translators should be sensitive to these translations regarding to the way their aims and intentions are transferred.
  1. Methodology
Selection of the texts (four books) was mostly done among the books which were written by International Chamber of Commerce about the rules and customs and practices of documentary credit and translated to the Persian by translators of Iran International Chamber of Commerce and also were highly referred and used by those who deal with international banking and trading affairs. These books include: Incoterms 2020 (with two Persian translations), Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (UCP600), International Standard Banking Practice (ISBP), and the last; The Guide to Documentary Credits which is a comprehensive book about documentary credit definitions, descriptions, rules, etc.). After selection of the texts, comparative analyses were done between the original texts and their translations by use of componential analysis, units of the same fields, and sense relations views of structural semantics. Before starting the description of these three views, first the necessary and sufficient conditions and prototype concepts should be defined.
Necessary condition, the condition that must be considered when “something” conveys its meaning and the condition that distinguishes one concept from other concepts, is considered to be the sufficient condition (Putnam, 1975). Prototypes, as central or typical member of a category according to which the rest of the members are compared, were proposed to solve some problems of necessary and sufficient conditions (Safavi, 2016, p.71-74).
Units of the same fields: This theory, which was first introduced by Trier (1931) by other names such as lexical field, semantic field and word field was finally proposed by Westerberg (1954) (as founder) and Trier by the names of lexical fields theory or field theory. Necessary and sufficient conditions show the similarities and differences between the words and this (these) similarity(ies) makes (-) some words to become the member of the same semantic field. These members of the same semantic field which have some components in common, are different in some other components which make them to be different from each other in the same semantic filed (Safavi, 2016, p.190).
Componential analysis: Hjelmslev (1953) (by following Saussure idea that the language is as a system of interrelations) was the person who took the first step for introducing componential analysis (also introducing content figures and distinctive features). Componential analysis, provides a model for describing meaning contents of the words. For using this model, we should believe that meaning of the words consist of limited sets of units called semantic (meaning) components or features which are in contrast and different with each other in the same semantic field and make the words of the same semantic field to be different (Gandomkar, 2017, p.240).
Sense or conceptual relations: which was first introduced by Lyons (1968) and he had the belief that; the semantics should also describe the oppositional relations and the meaning of a word can be recognized by its meaning (sense) relations with other words. These relations include Hyponymy, Meronymy, Semantic Opposition, Portion-Mass, Member-Collection, Semantic Contrast, Polysemy, and Synonymy.
  1. Results and Discussion
A: Four Expressions: Letter of credit, Documentary Credit, Commercial Credit, and Standby letter of Credit which belong to the same semantic field and have some meaning components in common, but are distinguished from each other regarding the components of letter, documentary, guarantee, and commercial nature.

Figure 1
Different Types and Names for Documentary Credit in Selected Banking Texts


 Table 1
 Different Meaning Components Existing in Different Yypes and Names for Documentary Credit in Selected Banking Texts
Component 4: with commercial nature Component 3: with guarantee nature Component 2: with documentary nature Component 1: with contractual or letter nature Different Recognized Names for Documentary Credit
+ - - + Letter of Credit
+ - + + Documentary Credit
+ - + + Commercial Credit
- + + + Standby Letter of Credit

B: Three Expressions: Insurance Certificate, Insurance Policy, and Declaration under an open cover belong to the same semantic field and have some components in common, but are distinguished from each other regarding the components of certificate, letter, guarantee, timeless and declaration nature.
Figure 2
 Different Types of Insurance Documents in Selected Banking Texts



Table 2
Different Meaning Components Existing in Different Types of Insurance Documents in Selected Banking Texts
Component4: without declarative nature Component 3: without time and space limitation nature Component 2: with contractual nature Component 1: with documentary nature Different Types of Insurance Documents
- - - + Insurance Certificate
- - + + Insurance Policy
+ + + - Declaration under an Open Cover

C: Four Words: Commissions, Fees, Charges, and Expenses belong to the same semantic field and have some components in common, but are distinguished from each other regarding the components of cash (receipt, payment, and transfer) (with percentage calculation), service or advice, all kinds of charges, and imposed nature.

Figure 3
Different Types of Charges in Selected Banking Texts


Table 3
Different Meaning Components Existing in Different Types of Charges in Selected Banking Texts
Component4: imposed expenses nature Component 3: all -inclusive charges Component 2: with service and consultant nature Component 1: with percentage nature Different Types of Banking Charges
- - - + Commission
- - + - Fee
+ + + + Charge
+ - - - Expense

D: Two Words: Transit and Teletransmission belong to the same semantic field and have some components in common, but are distinguished from each other regarding the component of electronic and non- electronic nature.

Figure 4
Different Types of Sendings in Selected Banking Texts


Table 4
Different Meaning Components Existing in Different Types of Charges in Selected Banking Texts
Component 2: with electronic and internet devices Component 1: with non-electronic and non-internet devices Different Types of Sendings in Banking Texts
- + Transit
+ - Teletransmission

E: Two Words: Partial and Instalment (drawing or shipment) belong to the same semantic field and have some components in common, but are distinguished from each other regarding the component of with or without previously timetabled nature.

Figure 5
Different Types of Drawings and Shipments in Selected Banking Texts







Table 5
Different Meaning Components Existing in Different Types of Drawings and Shipments in Selected Banking Texts
Component 2: without predetermined timetable Component 1: with predetermined timetable Two Different Types of Drawing and Shipment
+ - Partial
- + Instalment

F: Two words: Receipt and Pickup belong to the same semantic field and have some components in common, but are distinguished from each other regarding the component of in courier place or sender place nature.

Table 6
Different Meaning Components Existing in Different Types of Receipts in Selected Banking Texts
Component 2: delivery in sender’s location Component 1:  delivery in posting center Different Types of Receipts in Banking Texts
- + Receipt
+ - Pickup



 
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Linguistics
Published: 2024/01/30

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