Volume 14, Issue 4 (2023)                   LRR 2023, 14(4): 373-403 | Back to browse issues page

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Salehbak M, arefi A. Aesthetics of Surah Hamd Based on the Theory of Order by Abdul Qahir Jorjani. LRR 2023; 14 (4) :373-403
URL: http://lrr.modares.ac.ir/article-14-64089-en.html
1- Faculty member of the Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Allameh Tabatabai University , msalehbek@gmail.com
2- PhD student of Arabic language and literature, Allameh Tabatabai University
Abstract:   (2208 Views)
The Holy Qur'an is a heavenly prism that has attracted everyone's attention with its strange order, even polytheists, to the point where some attributed it to magic. Jurjani's theory of order is a theory that seeks to prove the linguistic miracle of the Holy Quran. This theory was proposed along with the view of some Mu'tazilis about the miracle of the Holy Qur'an, who said that the miracle of the Qur'an is not in its language, but rather in the fact that God does not allow anyone to bring the likeness of the Qur'an (theory of efficiency). In this theory, Jurjani considers order to be the same as searching for and finding the rhetorical subtleties of the Qur'an, and he relates eloquence and rhetoric to meaning, and calls the word a subordinate and servant of meaning. This article, with a descriptive analytical method and relying on Jurjani's theory of order, seeks to analyze Surah Mubarakah Hamad in order to validate this content that in this Surah, depending on the circumstances of the audience, the words are used in a special way, such as coming in the form of Ma'rafa and Nakrah. Back and forth, interjections, etc. are arranged to express their purpose in a proper way. Each word has its own special place, in such a way that if it is removed from its place and placed in another part, the order and proportion and ultimately the beauty and tenderness of the words will be lost and the intention of the theologian will remain unclear.

1. Introduction
Jorjani’s Theory of Nazm (Order), based on the existence of miracles in language engineering and the particular arrangement of words, seeks to prove the linguistic miracles of the Holy Quran, and it is against the view of some Motazelis who do not consider the miracles of the Quran in its language, but rather in the fact that God forbids bringing something like Quran (the theory of Sarfa). In the theory of order, Jorjani considers the miracle in applying the meanings of syntax and rhetorical subtleties of the Quran as among various aspects, and he relates eloquence and rhetoric to meaning and calls words subordinate and servants of the meaning. This paper aims to analyze Surah al-Hamd (Fathiha) and show its beauty with a descriptive-analytical method, relying on Jorjani’s theory of order. This study tries to answer the following two questions:
  1. How is the beauty of order manifested in Surah al-Hamd?
  2. What concepts and meanings are obtained by relying on the theory of order?
2. Literature Review
It seems that the beauty of the order in Surah Al-Hamd lies in the engineering of language and the coherence of its structure and words. This special order and structure provide a confirmation in accordance with the ideology of this Surah. Getting aware of the order in the verses through the coherent relationship between the words and the structure of the Surah naturally confirms the concepts of monotheism, prophethood, resurrection, judgment, destiny and sincerity of the audiences.
3. Methodology
Therefore, the present research is the first research that deals with the rhetorical miracle of this surah based on Jorjani’s theory, and during it, through rhetorical points, it examines the meanings and appropriateness of the verses and words and their relationship with regard to the overall structure.
4. Results
In examining Surah Al-Hamd based on the Theory of Order, the following results were obtained:
The chapter in the opening verses, such as the chapter of Allah from the rest of the universe in his oneness and proof of his oneness, is connected in the verse “thee do we serve and thee do we beseech for help” and its fit with the plural of the two verbs, indicates the sharing of humans in collective worship and, seeking help and proof of God’s oneness; chronology, praising, and criticizing in the noun clause at the verse " all praise is due to Allah, the lord of the worlds" is in proportion to the praise of God and praise is at the center of the speech. Precedence of the verb “serve” on the verb “beseech for help” is in proportion to the precedence of “Allah” on “the Lord” in terms of neat wrap and spread. Shortness, repetition, and deflection in the verse “thee do we serve and thee do we beseech for help” is in proportion to bowing to Allah and expressing the sincerity of the believers and their distance from hypocrisy and arrogance; and the use of such functions as adjective and substitute in “the beneficent, the merciful” and “the path of those upon whom you have favored” and the clear metaphor at the word “path” in the verse “guide us to the right path”; and definite  use of the words “Allah, the beneficent, the merciful, the right path, those upon whom, those who earn thine anger  and those who go astray” and taking advantage of present sentences with future verb in the verse “thee do we serve and thee do we beseech for help” and imperative verb in the verse “guide us to the right path” and proportion of the word “Al-hamd” with the word “Allah” as well as proportion of the word “Allah” with the verb “serve” and “those who earn thine anger” and “owner of the day of recompense” and proportion of the word “the Lord” with the verb “beseech for help” and “guide us” and other words with each other and proportion of all of them to the meanings and objectives of the surah are considerable. The coherent and regular structure and the special order of the words is such that it is not possible to remove a word from its place and replace it with another word, or to move the words, because the chain of order and coherence of the verses will be broken. The witness of this matter, in addition to the mentioned cases, is the word “recompense” in the verse “owner of the day of recompense” which cannot be replaced by the word “resurrection” because it will cause the intention of God to be hidden in this regard. Chronology, precedence and displacement in the verses “all praise is due to Allah, the lord of the worlds” and “thee do we serve and thee do we beseech for help” and the next verses verify this matter. The wonderful arrangement of words in this surah, as stated, are the manifestation of God’s beautiful and glorious attributes. Despite the shortness of Surah Al-Hamd, God has mentioned all the fundamental principles of religion, including monotheism, prophethood, resurrection, divinity and lordship, and the submission of righteous servants. And that is why this surah is nicknamed Mother of Quran or Fathiha of Quran.
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Article Type: مقالات علمی پژوهشی | Subject: Arabic language
Published: 2023/10/2

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